Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

Most of the existing roads have been imposed upon this landscape in the last two generations.

Video on Demand

Fig. 187. Small orthostat buried in the soil, partially supported by small pebbles at its base. It is located along the trail that climbs from the Paran Desert to site HK 86b. (Site 86b; photo GC92: CLXII-37; WARA W06045).


Fig. 188. Detail of the palaeosoil with remains of flint alignments. The soil is covered with flakes and blades from the early phase of the Upper Palaeolithic. (Site HK 86b; photo EA93: XVII-21; WARA W06046).

Mount Sinai has been found.


The facts and considerations presented in the previous chapters will have permitted the reader to formulate views on different aspects of research and analysis: archaeological, palaeoclimatic, palaeogeographic, historical, ethnological, exegetic, psychological, and philosophical. The raw material described so far may stimulate thought and debate, but in synthesis, what can we draw from twenty years of archaeological research at Har Karkom? One thousand, two hundred previously unknown archaeological sites and the resultant comparative research reveal some fundamental trends.

Har Karkom was a paramount cult centre and a sacred mountain beginning in the Palaeolithic Age, reaching its peak of religious activity in the third millennium BC. It was then a true "Mecca" for the desert people. If the epic accounts described in the books of Exodus and Numbers rely on a historical background, and if indeed an exodus from Egypt took place with stops at Mount Sinai and at Kadesh-barnea, the chronological context may refer only to the BAC period, and more precisely to phase BAC IV (2350-2000 BC). Har Karkom was a primary sacred mountain in that period, and the topography and archaeological evidence of its plateau appear to reflect the location and character of the biblical Mount Sinai. The documentation provided by archaeology at Jericho and Ai and other archaeological sites mentioned in the Bible, the parallels with Egyptian literature, and the finds at Har Karkom all seem to imply that the biblical accounts of Exodus may have a historical background. True to the character of mythical accounts, the stories may have undergone some degree of transformation and elaboration over years of transmission. One should not forget to acknowledge that storytellers and troubadours from various generations may have had a role in the final compilations of the texts which reached us. In contrast to the widespread tendency of dismissing the Bible as a historical source, in our view, this narrative, popularised though it may have been, was and is founded on real historical occurrences, as corroborated by the archaeological discoveries at Har Karkom.

more...View all the page

Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).

Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links

Copyright � 2001-2024 by Emmanuel Anati. All rights reserved. No part of this web site may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages and reproduce not more than two illustrations in a review to be published in a magazine, newspaper or web review.
Reviews should include at least two links to, once in the article body and once at its end, referring readers to for more informations.

Edizioni del Centro, 25044 Capo di Ponte, Valcamonica (BS), Italy
TEL: 0039 0364/42091, FAX: 0039 0364/42572, [email protected]


Webdesign by feedmeback