Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

Dating is in sharp contrast with ethnological, archaeological, environmental, and climatic data

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Mount Sinai has been found.



Coordinates: 124.6/970.2 Description: 8 piles of stones with a larger tumulus in the center. Nearby is a stone circle. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.


Coordinates: 124.4/970.2 Description: Remains of stone structures, a threshing floor, and 2 tumuli. Several piles of stones. Remains of agricultural terracing in the wadi below yielding about 2 hectares of arable land. Finds: Abundant BAC flint, and sporadic RBY and ISL pottery. Fragment of a grinding stone made from an exotic stone. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.


Coordinates: 124.6/970.5 Description: Remains of a large encampment with 8 oval structures. This village represents a microcosm. 7 small tumuli to the south probably constitute a cemetery. Within 1 of the structures is an orthostat to the side, and in front of it a stone with a large cup-mark, probably a shrine. The larger portion of this stone shows a relief resembling a human hand. Traces of a hearth. South of site BK/173, there is a long row of stones indicates a trail leading up the hill to a semicircle facing Har Karkom (BK/173b). Finds: Flints; Pieces of bordeau marble with white particles inside; it must come from a very small object (thickness: 8 mm.). Pottery from the Iron Age. On the hill above it and in the surrounding area, Neolithic and BAC flint implements. BK/173 b: An elongated flint core, which may have been used as a tool. Period MC: NEOL, BAC, IA, RBY. Site typology: Hamlet, shrine. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309; EA93a, pp. 53-55 & 60; EA88a, p. 116; EA95 p. 15.


Coordinates: 124.8/970.3 Description: A heap of 4 large stones and several small ones. On top an anthropomorphic stone was placed. 5 m. east, is a bowl-shaped stone. The distance from site BK/173 is 200 m. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA93a, p. 59 & 67.


Coordinates: 124.4/970.4 Description: Agricultural terracing in the wadi.


Coordinates: 124.4/970.7 Description: 4 stone circles, 1 enclosure and 2 heaps of stones. Finds: Flint and pottery. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Courtyard. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.


Coordinates: 124.6/970.9 Description: A semicircular wall forms a large enclosure. Next to it there is a stone circle. Below, toward the wadi, there is a small stone structure, which is probably a Bedouin grave. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology: Courtyard. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.


Coordinates: 124.7/970.6 Description: Stone structures on both sides of a shallow wadi; 2 on 1 side, 3 on the other. Several minor structures. Traces of designs and meanders arranged with pebbles (pebble drawings). Remains of 4 terraces with large stones on the 2 ends of each terrace wall. They are not the usual RBY or ISL terraces and appear to be much older. This was probably a seasonal agricultural settlement that used the fertile land of site BK/179. Finds: Numerous Chalcolithic flints including a small bifacial hoe. This site probably belongs to a very early phase of BAC. Periods MC: CHAL, BAC. Site typology: Courtyard.


Coordinates: 124.7/970.9 Description: Remains of 3 stone structures on the terrace of the wadi. Further down there is a level area with remains of agricultural terracing. On the other side of the wadi, there are 2 structures. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.


Coordinates: 124.9/970.9 Description: 2 main stone structures and several remains of walls. Site typology: Hamlet.


Coordinates: 125.1/970.5 Description: An alignment of stones and 2 tumuli. Remains of 2 partially destroyed stone circles. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.


Coordinates: 125.1/970.3 Description: 5 parallel agricultural terraces reused by Bedouins. Low walls and canals along the side of the wadi extending 100 m., for the collection of water. 1 wall along the wadi continues for several hundred meters. It is a large planned system, with a series of artificial terraces. There are the remains of a group of stone dwelling units on the western side of the wadi. Site BK/176, where we found agricultural tools of the BAC period, is in close proximity suggesting this area has been under cultivation since remote times. The low walls and terracing were clearly reconstructed and reutilized during different periods. South of BK/179, there are remains of agricultural terracing and temporary structures in the wadi, probably Bedouin (BK/179b). Finds: Fan scraper (BK/179b). Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Hamlet. Bibliography: EA86, pp. 309 & 310.


Coordinates: 126.2/970.6 Description: 4 stone circles and the remains of other structures on the bank of the wadi. Finds: Site typology: Encampment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.


Coordinates: 125.9/970.9 Description: An animal pen, at least 3 oval basements of huts and an oval structure with an orthostat. Also, there is a small cave. The stone built structures seem to be Roman-Byzantine, but rearranged in medieval times. There are traces of terracing and a small field, which is still green. Also, there is a richly engraved rock. In between the rocks, walls of large stones to be have completed the natural cracks. Such structures are likely to be used as shelters BAC. Finds: Fragments of BAC pottery, as well as BAC flint implements. Periods MC: UP, BAC, RBY, ISL. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: ..........................? Site typology: Courtyard. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310; EA96b, p. 18; EA95, p. 10.


Coordinates: 126.0/971.0 Description: Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.


Coordinates: 125.7/971.4 Description: Entrance to a cave, which is very narrow but goes deep inside. The floor from the ceiling measures 30 cm and the end is not visible. Finds: Site typology: Cave.


Coordinates: 125.7/971.3 Description: Remains of nomad camp, probably Bedouin. It is 100 m. to the north of 183c. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology:


Coordinates: 125.8/971.2 Description: Remains of campsite. A crevice probably leading to a cave.


Coordinates: 126.4/971.3 Description: A stone circle in a slight widening of the wadi. Site typology: Encampment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.


Coordinates: 126.3/972.2 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IVA, IVC, VII. Site typology: Rock art.


Coordinates: 126.2/971.6 Description: Remains of a series of stone structures adjacent to one another are located in a small valley, at the beginning of a wadi. Site typology: Encampment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.


Coordinates: 126.8/971.6 Description: Remains of 3 stone circles were found on the western side of a small wadi. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Encampment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.


Coordinates: 126.1/971.9 Description: 4 Palaeolithic basements of huts and 1 large area cleared of stones with an alignment of stones on the northwestern side. In close proximity are the remains of a stone circle. Finds: (Upper?) Palaeolithic flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.


Coordinates: 121.6/970.0 Description: Circular geoglyph with a tail of 3 larger stones. Diameter ca. 3.5 m. Site typology:


Coordinates: 128.9/970.7 Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. There are more engraved rocks in the surrounding area for some 1 km. The area has not yet been explored. Periods RA: V,VI, VII. Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.8/971.9 Rock Art: 1 engraved rock with different phases: classic style III, IV-A, IV-C with a thamudic inscription. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, VII. Site typology: Bibliography: EA93, p. 70; EA96b, p. 27.


Coordinates: 127.7/971.7 Description: A large area at the confluence of 2 wadis was utilized by different human assemblages during various periods. The site was divided into 4 sections: A: Following the wadi upwards, this area is located on a large terrace above the southern bank of the wadi. Remains of structures are scattered over an area measuring nearly 100 m. There is a peculiar triangular area with 3 tumuli. In the center of area a: remains of a large building angulated on 1 side and arched on the other, with a courtyard in front of it. Remains of 11-12 other structures, most of them circular. Down below, near the wadi, a rectangular structure is much better preserved and is likely to be from a later period. B: This area is located in between the 2 wadis at the confluence. There are 2 main round dwelling units, 1 adjacent to a large livestock enclosure. C: Remains of 1 rectangular structure and several heaps of stones. Some small rock shelters have been adapted for human use. D: Along the wadi, remains of at least 8 rectangular dwelling units. On an upper terrace, several rectangular courtyards, probably used for agricultural purposes. Site typology: Courtyard.


Coordinates: 127.6/971.5 Description: 2 large circles formed by piles of stones and small circular structures. The larger circle is over 30 m. in diameter; the smaller is about 22 or 23 m. An alignment of 7 standing stones and a few piles of stones on the other side of the wadi. This site is a double plaza, the large 1 has big structures, probably 12, out of which, at least 4 could have been dwelling units. The small plaza is composed of 12-13 small heaps of stones and 2 additional groups of 3 heaps, which seem to have been added at a later time. Northwest of site BK/253, remains of 2 dwelling units, a courtyard and 4 tumuli. About 30 m. from this site, on the terrace of the wadi is a series of courtyards probably used for agricultural purposes and agricultural terracing. Finds: BAC, MP Flints. Periods MC: BAC, MP. Site typology: Double Plaza. Bibliography: EA93, p. 21; EA87, pp. 122/123.


Coordinates: 127.1/971.4 Description: A large stone structure with small rooms around it and a courtyard flanked by 2 large enclosures. The whole complex measures about 25x20 m. Older walls have been rebuilt in later times. At least 5 piles of stones around the central structure may indicate additional structures. Site typology: Courtyard.


Coordinates: 126.6/970.3 Description: Basements of huts are located on top of a hill.


Coordinates: 128.3/970.3 Description: A circular stone structure and several piles of stones.


Coordinates: 129.5/971.3 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment and 1 tumulus on the top of a hill. Periods MC: ISL. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Site typology: Encampment.


Coordinates: 126.2/970.3 Description: Stone circle with Islamic inscription and rock art. Periods MC: ISL. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Site typology:


Coordinates: 122.7/976.9 Description: A: 1 engraved rock. Probably the rock was shaped in prehistoric times by hammering off flakes. Same shade of patina as surface. B: A small cave 40m further up. Entrance: 1x1 m. About 10 m. long. At the end: 1.80 m. large and ca. 1.50 m. high. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C, VI. Site typology: Bibliography: EA96b, p. 23.

Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).

Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links

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