Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
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Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

Archaeological expeditions have allowed systematic surveying of the two hundred square kilometre area


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Mount Sinai has been found.
 


BEER KARKOM SITES 400-499

BK/400a

Coordinates: 124.2/973.7 Description: Waterhole built with stone wall, almost vertical on 1 side and oblique on the others. The eastern side, which is the most circuitous, is stepped and can be easily climbed. Around this waterhole, which is undoubtedly very old though still in use, are the remains of several circular, vertical waterholes which are more recent and none of which are in use today. There are several oval stone structures around the waterhole, which probably served as drinking-troughs for animals. There are Bedouin cemeteries south of the waterhole. 1, which is divided into 2 sections, is relatively recent, while the other is older. The 2 areas contain different structural typologies. On the western side, the waterhole leans up against the rocky wall of the mountain. Above, there are various small rock shelters, which show vestiges of recent use, including remains of closing walls. 1 cave contained the remains of a human skeleton. Bedouin objects (jars, remains of leather belts, and tin containers) were found in abundance. To the north of the waterhole there is an alignment of stones which leads to a larger boulder fallen from the mountain; next to it is a "gong" stone entirely covered with marks of hammering. Upon striking with another stone the sounds produced can be heard at great distances. As it is located in a gorge, the echo effect is very impressive. At the foot of the Gong rock there is a rectangular platform, on it an anthropomorphic stone and flint implements. Finds: Abundant flints from the Upper Palaeolithic and BAC periods. BAC pottery; a few fragments of anomalous pottery that were not possible to date (perhaps from the Iron Age or the Persian period?). A large number of sherds dating to Roman-Byzantine and Islamic times. Periods MC: UP, BAC, HEL, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 312; EA97, p. 67.

BK/400b

Coordinates: 124.1/973.6 Description: Vestiges of low walls at the top of the hill which overlooks the waterhole. A series of 6 small tumuli, and a pillar or standing stone is aligned along the edge of a hill that overlooks site BK/450. Numerous small caves and rock shelters. Some of them have built structures inside, such as walls and storing places. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 312.

BK/400c

Coordinates: 124.1/973.8 Description: A tumulus and several heaps of stones. Site typology:

BK/401

Coordinates: 123.8/974.4 Description: Remains of a village on a large terrace of the wadi, with 21 stone structures ordered in 2 aligned series. 1 series is against the mountain and the other is on a small hill at the center of the terrace. The structures are homogeneous, and all have a single room. In addition there are the remains of 2 stone enclosures, probably intended for livestock, which seem to be older. 10 of the structures show signs of having been rebuilt and reutilized. Finds: BAC flints and pottery, and RBY pottery. 1 piece of early glass. A few anomalous fragments of pottery which have not yet been dated. Probably either Persian or Hellenistic; Grindstone. Periods MC: BAC, HEL, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 312.

BK/401b

Coordinates: 123.7/974.5 Description: 2 structures similar to those previously described at site BK/401a on the opposite side of the wadi. To the west of the structures, remains of agricultural terracing. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313.

BK/402

Coordinates: 123.4/974.4 Description: Remains of dwelling site with courtyard structures and a few "threshing-floors" delimited by a series of stones. 3 ensembles of structures were identified. The settlement seems to have been developed in the course of its use; in fact, it seems that smaller structures have been added in a later time around 2 main courtyard structures. While the material culture is similar to that found at site BK/401, about 300 m. away, the structures themselves are completely different. The "threshing-floors" resemble those discovered in the Uvda valley in the southern Negev. Finds: BAC pottery and flint, RBY pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Bibliography: EA86, p. 313; EA97, p. 65.

BK/403

Coordinates: 123.4/974.3 Description: Stone tumulus measuring about 4 m. in diameter on the hill overlooking site BK/402. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313; EA93a, p. 40.

BK/404

Coordinates: 123.0/974.1 Description: Large courtyard structure with at least 3 smaller structures around it. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313.

BK/404b

Coordinates: 122.8/974.0 Description: On the bank of the wadi, near a tree of acacia desertica which presupposes the presence of water, 5 barrows, and 4 circles are marked by alignments of stones. The oval barrows are about 2 x 1. 50 m. and are presumably tombs. About 20 m.. apart, there is another oval circle of stones, probably a hut floor. Finds: Pottery Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology:

BK/405a

Coordinates: 123.7/974.4 Description: Remains of a rectangular building with a small tumulus nearby. Periods MC: RBY, NAB. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313.

BK/405b

Coordinates: 123.8/974.4 Description: Remains of an encampment with 3 structures. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313.

BK/406

Coordinates: 123.7/974.2 Description: Remains of an encampment that included 10 structures. Find: Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313.

BK/407a

Coordinates: 124.0/974.0 Description: At the top of the hill to the western side of the wadi which overlooks the waterhole of Beer Karkom (site BK/400) there is a plateau defended by a surrounding wall in the form of a semi- circle which ends to the south on the precipice and covers an area of about 60x40 m. At least 5 circular turrets can be discerned along the wall which reaches a thickness of 1.7 m.. 2 of the towers are detached from the wall forming entrances between them and the wall itself. 1 portion of the wall seems to have dwelling areas along it. In the explored area, this is the only building that can be defined as having a military and defensive purpose. The only other possible military structures are the ones at its base below (site BK/408), likely to defend the important Maale Sagi trail leading from the waterhole to the mountains of the central Negev; and site BK/450 located on the opposite site of Beer Karkom which controls the trail to Beer Karkom from the South. It is unclear whether this can be considered a dwelling site or rather an army fortress, which, however, includes about 10 dwelling units. As concept, it may be assimilated to the courtyard sites. Finds: Numerous BAC flints, a few pottery pieces and a fragment of a small alabaster vase. Fragments of pottery likely to be Iron Age (?) and Islamic. Periods MC: BAC, IA?, ISL, UP. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313; EA88a, p. 114; EA93a, p. 44.

BK/407b

Coordinates: 124.2/974.0 Description: On the East Side of the hill of the fort (BK/407), at mid slope, there is a tumuli in a rock shelter, rocks obstruct the opening. A skeleton is lying supine with the head to the north and face turned east. The bones outcropped, and the skeleton does not seem to be violated. In a small ravine, there is a cache of rocks. In front of the tombs there is another storeroom with a small stone wall, which was found open. Finds: No trace of material culture. In the immediate vicinity a copper fragment with beaten border has been found, probably ISL. Site typology: Periods MC: ISL.

BK/408

Coordinates: 123.9/973.9 Description: Remains of a massive square structure (defense tower?) and of 3 minor structures to either side were found in the middle of a narrow passage of the trail between 2 peaks. Most probably this was a defensive building related to site BK/407 intended to protect the passage to the Beer Karkom waterhole. The central tower is constructed with large uncut stones, each about 1 m. long; it measures about 5 x 6 m. and has 1 small room. Finds: BAC flints, BYZ and ISL pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Rock Art: Next to these structures there are engravings on movable rocks, which do not have patina. 4 of the rocks were removed. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313.

BK/409a-b

Coordinates: 124.4/973.8 Description: A virtually isolated hill overlooks the wadi east of the Beer Karkom waterhole, rising above the surroundings by about 200 m.. The view from this hill dominates the great Maale Sagi caravan trail to the west for more than 2km. From the peak one can also see Wadi Karkom over a 2km stretch and, southeast of it, one can dominate a valley which contains abundant remains of settlements, including site HK/110. This is undoubtedly a strategic point from which one can control any movement in the surrounding area. A number of rock shelters are located in the wadi to north of the site, and reveal traces of recent use. There are some courtyard structures of the BAC period on this hill (BK/409 b). On the western side which overlooks the wadi there are several tumuli as well as a peculiar structure: a large slab of rock set horizontally like a seat, with 2 stone walls on either side. Each wall is flanked by a rock with schematic engravings, which presumably are recent. Inside of the principal courtyard structure 3 small anthropomorphic-shaped stones have been found, next to one another. 2 of those stones show traces of artificial engravings completing the natural forms. Flint implements BAC thickly cover the area. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313.

BK/410a-e

Coordinates: 124.7/973.7 Description: In the valley east of Beer Karkom there is a large conglomeration of dwelling sites with stone bases many of which are courtyard structures. They cover an area measuring about 200 x 100 m.. About 50 of these structures apparently had "courtyards", while other side rooms are discerned as well. Simple stone circles better preserved and undoubtedly dating to more recent times than the others form other structures in the area. It seems possible to distinguish 2 phases of construction in the older structures, both of which are associated with BAC pottery and flints. To the extreme east of the complex and about 50 m. from the last structures there is another aligned series of 8 stone structures with both oval and round plans, related to an archaic phase of the complex (BK/410 d). Note that the structural remains reveal 3 different kinds of plans, all 3 related to BAC material culture. In the wadi north of these sites there are 3 groups of stone structures similar to those at site BK/410c. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 313.

BK/410f-g

Coordinates: 124.8/973.8 Description: A series of 8 structures aligned east west, along the terrace of the wadi. Finds: Abundant Roman-Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/410h-i

Coordinates: 124.9/973.8 Description: 2 large stone circles on the southern terrace of the wadi, 100 m. east of the proceeding site following the wadi upstream. Next to them is a dwelling structure. Periods MC: Probably RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/411a

Coordinates: 124.5/973.6 Description: Remains of an encampment on a wide terrace of Wadi Karkom, cut through the middle of a well beaten and presumably more recent path. Finds: Roman-Byzantine and Islamic pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL, UP. Site typology:

BK/411b

Coordinates: 124.5/973.5 Description: Remains of an Islamic necropolis. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/412a-c

Coordinates: 124.6/973.4 Description: The remains of stone structures and small tumuli with pottery and flints were found on 3 low hills on the eastern side of Wadi Karkom. On the slope of the hill furthest eastward, a small but very finely made bifacial hand-axe was found dating to the Lower Palaeolithic period. Finds: Lower Palaeolithic flint (Micoquian?), BAC flint and pottery, Nabatean and Roman-Byzantine pottery, a fragment of worked palm wood and a fragment of granite mortar, similar to the type that comes from the granite mountains south of Eilat. Periods MC: LP, BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/413a

Coordinates: 124.8/973.5 Description: 3 courtyard structures and several heaps of stones on the northern terrace of the wadi. Finds: Flints and BAC pottery. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/413b

Coordinates: 124.9/973.4 Description: 3 stone structures on the southern terrace of the wadi. Finds: Roman-Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/414

Coordinates: 124.9/973.3 Description: Heaps of stones on a gradual slope. Finds: Flints dating to the Upper Palaeolithic period. Roman pottery. Periods MC: UP, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/415

Coordinates: 124.8/973.3 Description: Remains of stone structures on the slope. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flints. Pottery. Periods MC: MP, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/416

Coordinates: 124.7/973.3 Description: 6 stone structures partially covered by alluvial soil. 3 orthostats (?) on the eastern side. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/417

Coordinates: 124.8/973.2 Description: Remains of at least 3 oval stone structures. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/417b

Coordinates: 125.0/973.2 Description: Remains of recent Bedouin camp; next to it, there is a series of more ancient agricultural terracing, which has vestiges of reconstruction. Finds: Byzantine, Islamic pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/418

Coordinates: 125.2/973.0 Description: Remains of at least 3 stone structures. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/419

Coordinates: 125.4/973.0 Description: 2 stone circles and piles of stones on both sides of the wadi (apparently the wadi divided the village in 2). Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/420a-b

Coordinates: 125.5/972.9 Description: In the terrace of the wadi, below the engraved rock, there are remains of 2 large enclosures and several heaps of stones. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: VI-VII. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/421

Coordinates: 125.4/972.8 Description: A tumulus and a pile of stones on a gradual slope. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 314.

BK/422

Coordinates: 125.3/972.8 Description: A stone circle and a stone structure. Finds: Flints, pottery. Periods MC: BAC, BYZ. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/423

Coordinates: 125.4/972.7 Description: Remains of 3 stone structures; 2 are oval, 1 is V-shaped. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/424

Coordinates: 125.3/972.6 Description: 3 oval structures and several piles of stones. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/425

Coordinates: 125.0/972.6 Description: 3 stone circles with a tumulus next to each other on the summit of a hill, which from the north overlooks a bend in the wadi. Another stone circle at the foot of the hill in the wadi itself, 60 m. from the previously described group. Continuing downward in the wadi, remains of agricultural terracing. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: UP, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/426

Coordinates: 124.6/972. 6 Description: 3 circular, paved platforms, and the remains of a 4th which is circular on 1 side and angular on the other. 2 of the platforms are in a perfect state of preservation; each platform has a structure facing east, presumably an altar. East of this complex are remains of motifs made with pebbles on the ground (pebble drawings), 2 of which, represent gazelles measuring about 1 m. in length. Finds: Flint and pottery. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315; EA97, p. 66.

BK/426b

Coordinates: 124.7/972.7 Description: A tumulus and around it a cromlech. On the tumulus itself there is an oblong rock with an inscription (Nabatean?), which was, presumably, intended to be fixed in a vertically upright position. Nearby there are a few stones showing naturally anthropomorphic shapes, 2 of them have been fixed to the round and are standing up. Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/427

Coordinates: 124.5/972.6 Description: Settlement to the west of the altar-platforms, measuring 80 x 60 m. with 7 dwelling structures, a number of enclosures and several minor buildings. It extends 50 m. from the platform to the foot of the overlooking hill. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: LP, BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315; EA97, p. 66.

BK/428a-b

Coordinates: 124.6/973.1 Description: Remains of a cemetery. 80 m. south, on both sides of a lateral wadi, additional heaps of stones. Finds: Nabataean, Byzantine and Islamic pottery. Flints dating to the Lower Palaeolithic period, including 2 bifacial hand- axes. Periods MC: LP, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/429

Coordinates: 124.8/972.8 Description: Remains of a village on the terrace in a bend of the wadi; they include sweven circular stone dwelling units and an enclosure, presumably for livestock. This seems to be older and shows vestiges of reuse in the Roman-Byzantine period. In between 2 of the structures, there is a group of standing stones. In the vicinity, there is a large tumulus and a few smaller tumuli. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/430a-e

Coordinates: 124.6/972.4 Description: Large stone circle along the wadi with a tumulus at the center and several courtyard structures. Various other stone structures remain within a radius of 150 m.. At least 9 tumuli; the architectural evidence indicates this site was utilized in different periods and some of the walls were rebuilt more than once. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/431

Coordinates: 124.8/972.4 Description: A thick level of ashes by the side of the bed of the wadi begins 10cm beneath the current ground level and reveals the presence of a prolonged fire, perhaps not very old. On the terrace above some 50 m. away, a stone circle, 2 m. in diameter, and a small pile of stones. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC?, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/432

Coordinates: 125.0/972.3 Description: 3 courtyard structures, 2 of which are built with very large stones; an elongated oval enclosure along the wadi (about 18 m. long). Finds: BAC flints and pottery. Roman-Byzantine pottery. A marine shell from the Red Sea. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/432b

Coordinates: 125.0/972.4 Description: A complex ensemble of dwelling structures with a large enclosure for livestock. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/433

Coordinates: 125.1/972.3 Description: Remains of a camping site with the basement of at least 4 stone- built structures. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/433b

Coordinates: 125.1/972.3 Description: A large BAC courtyard structure, 60 m. west of site BK/433, on an overlooking plateau. Periods MC: BAC. Rock art: 1 small isolated rock engraved with the figure of an ibex. Periods RA: IV-A. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/434a-b

Coordinates: 125.1/972.1 Description: 100 m further up along the path, remains of a stone built enclosure on the edge of a cliff. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flints. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: Engravings along the path to the mountain. Site typology: Periods RA: VI-VII. Bibliography: EA86, p. 315.

BK/435

Coordinates: 125.1/972.5 Description: Remains of 4 oval structures on a terrace of the wadi; each has a courtyard or threshing-floor next to it. Signs of reconstruction reveal at least 2 distinct phases of human occupation. To the south, a group of tumuli. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/436

Coordinates: 125.2/972.4 Description: Enclosure built at the foot of a hill with uncut black stones, presumably for livestock. A group of large stones put together by man has an end stone with a naturally shaped anthropomorphic face. Periods MC: RBY. Rock Art: Engraved rock within the enclosure itself and 2 engraved rocks on the peak of the hill overlooking the area. 1 early Arabic in- scription. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/437a

Coordinates: 125.5/972.5 Description: Large courtyard structure of oval shape and remains of several walls around it. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/437b

Coordinates: 125.5/972.6 Description: Remains of a stone-built enclosure. Site typology:

BK/438

Coordinates: 125.4/972.4 Description: Large stone-built enclosure and some standing stones. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/439

Coordinates: 125.4/972.3 Description: 2 large stone circles, on the top of a hill, with a passageway built between them. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/440

Coordinates: 125.3/972.2 Description: On the southern side of the wadi there are 3 large boulders, apparently intentionally arranged. 2 of these have a naturally elongated shape and lean against the side of the mountain; be- tween them there is a smaller rock whose natural shape resembles an anthropomorphic face. In front of this ensemble there is a small natural terrace with piles of stones and the remains of a low wall. It appears that there are also the remains of a large hearth, because the rocks around it reveal distinct signs of burning. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/441

Coordinates: 124.9/972.0 Description: Remains of an enclosure for livestock. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/442

Coordinates: 124.8/971.9 Description: Remains of a village with stone structures, 3 of which are over 8 x 7 m. in size; apparently they were dwelling units. Several minor structures include 1 which may have been an oven. 2 more stone structures, on the other side of the wadi. Periods MC: RBY. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock 50 m. north, on the other side of the wadi. Periods RA: IV-C, V, VI?. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/443a-b

Coordinates: 124.8/972.0 Description: Remains of agricultural terraces on the bank of the wadi and 2 stone-built living structures. On the opposite side of the wadi, several heaps of stones may indicate the location of a cemetery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/444

Coordinates: 124.7/972.2 Description: 4 courtyard structures, 1 in a lateral wadi. 2 of these structures are spiral in shape. A tumulus at the center of one. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/445

Coordinates: 124.4/972.5 Description: Remains of stone structures at the confluence of a lateral wadi and Wadi Karkom. Finds: Arabic Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/446a

Coordinates: 124 5/974.4 Description: 4 stone structures in alignment, along a terrace of the wadi. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/446b

Coordinates: 124.4/974.4 Description: A courtyard structure and another smaller structure nearby. Remains of 2 heaps of stones and a stone circle. Further above, a rock shelter, which contains the remains of a recent hearth and walls covered by charcoal soot. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/446c

Coordinates: 124.4/974.3 Description: On the mountain's side, many natural small rock shelters with traces of the Islamic age. In 1 of them a hearth. 2 of the shelters are defined by terracing walls. Finds: Pottery Gaza type. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology:

BK/446d

Coordinates: 124.4/974.1 Description: On the mountainside, some rock shelters with Islamic traces. In 2 of them, stone walls with square windows. Probable troglodyte habitations of Islamic age. Finds: Pottery Gaza type. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology:

BK/446e

Coordinates: 124.4/974.0 Description: Along a lateral wadi, several rock shelters with traces of use. 1 of them faces Har Karkom. Finds: Hellenistic and Roman pottery. Periods MC: HEL, RBY. Site typology:

BK/446f

Coordinates: 124.5/974.4 Description: On a tableland, remains of 7 stone barrows. Finds: Pottery and flints BAC. Periods MC: AC. Site typology:

BK/446g

Coordinates: 124.4/974.4 Description: Natural shelter with remains of a storeroom built with a stone and mud wall. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology:

BK/446h

Coordinates: 124.5/974.3 Description: Large shelter measuring about 20 x3 m.. Remains of a storeroom built with stone and mud. In front a hearth and at its side, a stone built pen. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology:

BK/447a

Coordinates: 123.6/973.5 Description: Remains of a village with about 30 oval structures, on a long terrace at the confluence of 2 wadis. Another 5 structures of the same kind on the terrace to the west, on the other bank of the wadi. Remains of agricultural terracing in the wadi bed. Finds: Flints and pottery. A bronze spatula with an Arabic inscription. Periods MC: BAC?, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/447b

Coordinates: 123.5/973.4 Description: A courtyard structure on a hill on the western bank of the wadi. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/448

Coordinates: 123.5/973.5 Description: Remains of a courtyard structure on a small hill from which 1 commands the view to the north. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK449

Coordinates: 123.6/973.4 Description: 7 stone structures and several tumuli on the terrace of a wadi. On the hill above, heaps of stones. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/449b

Coordinates: 123.7/973.4 Description: 2 stone structures, several tumuli and agricultural terracing on the bed of the wadi. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/450a

Coordinates: 124.3/973.5 Description: Massive rectangular structure on a hill, perhaps for defensive purposes, dominates the access to the waterhole from the south. Apparently associated with the defensive system at sites BK/407 and BK/408, it includes a main building and the remains of 2 small towers on the mountain slope westward. A beaten trail transverses the site and the main stone structure is in the middle of that trail, while the 2 towers are on both sides. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 316.

BK/450b

Coordinates: 124.3/973.6 Description: Bedouin cemetery. Finds: A large stone pestle next to 1 of the graves. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/450c

Coordinates: 124.3/973.6 Description: 50 m west of HK/450b, some small rock shelters 2 are protected by stone-built walls. Finds: Pottery ISL, wooden utensil of recent making. Site typology:

BK/451

Coordinates: 124.4/973.3 Description: Two large boulders, which had fallen from the mountain, surrounded by intentionally, placed piles of stones. 1 of these boulders has a peculiar natural shape, which resembles an anthropomorphic face. Another boulder has a circle of small stones surrounding it at a radius of about 4 m.. Several stones with natural anthropomorphic shapes seem to have been brought there intentionally. Finds: Flints and pottery sherds. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Bibliography : EA86, p. 317; EA87, p. 28 & 29.

BK/452

Coordinates: 124.2/973.4 Description: Group of tumuli on a hilltop which overlooks the Beer Karkom waterhole from the south. Periods MC: BAC?. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/453a

Coordinates: 124.3/973.2 Description: Piles of stones and several tumuli along a side terrace of the wadi. Finds: Flints and pottery. Several fragments of anomalous pottery may date to the Iron Age. Periods MC: BAC, IA?, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/453b

Coordinates: 124.0/973.2 Description: Group of tumuli on a hilltop. Periods MC: BAC?. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/453c

Coordinates: 124.1/973.2 Description: Group of tumuli on a hilltop. Periods MC: BAC?. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/454a

Coordinates: 124.2/972.7 Description: A tumulus and several heaps of stones. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/454b

Coordinates: 124.3/972.6 Description: Remains of a camping site with at least 30 basements of stone structures. The structures are organized in rows, 3 of which count respectively, 9, 7 and 7 structures. Further south a water hole which has been cleaned recently and a Bedouin cemetery. Site typology:

BK/455

Coordinates: 124.1/972.8 Description: Tumuli on the slope of a hill which overlooks a small wadi. Perhaps remains of an enclosure. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Bibliography : EA86, p. 317.

BK/456

Coordinates: 124.1/972.5 Description: A circle made of small stones surrounds a large boulder which had fallen from the mountain. The natural shape of the boulder has grotesquely anthropomorphic features on both sides. 15 m. north there is another boulder with anthropomorphic features. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/457a

Coordinates: 123.7/972.3 Description: Numerous piles of stones and flints cover a low hill which ex- tends from the west toward Wadi Karkom. North, remains of a Bedouin camp. Finds: Flints, pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/457b

Coordinates: 123.7/972.4 Description: On a gentle slope between 2 wadis, a plaza site composed of 12 stone structures of various dimensions. Eastward, there is a rounded row of 7-8 stone-built structures which together form a sort of tail. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/457c

Coordinates: 123.8/972.4 Description: Remains of 6 stone structures on both sides of the wadi and several heaps of stones. 5 of the structures are aligned on the north side of the wadi, while 1 on the opposite side is rounded and has an almost rectangular courtyard in front of it. A tumulus exists on the hill above. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/457d

Coordinates: 123.7/972.5 Description: On the wadi terrace north of site BK/457c, remains of several stone structures from 2 different periods. The better-preserved ones are rectangular in shape, while the others are circular. Several of them show remains of hearths. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology:

BK/457e

Coordinates: 123.7/972.5 Description: Flint atelier on the top of the hill, behind site BK/457 c. Finds: Cores and blades. 1 Lower Palaeolithic hand-axe. Periods MC: LP, MP, BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA87, p. 165.

BK/457f

Coordinates: 123.7/972.6 Description: In a small valley north of site BK/457e, a rounded row of 7 stone- built structures and several additional heaps of stones. Below them in the lowest part of the small valley, a line of 3 structures possessing remains of very hot fires was noted inside and outside. They are likely to have been ateliers in which some substance had been burned to the point of dissolving stones. Finds: Numerous flint hammering tools concentrated near the atelier- like structures. Flint implements spread all over. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology:

BK/458

Coordinates: 123.2/972.1 Description: Bases of stone structures and several heaps of stones which seem to represent different periods. There are at least 3 different kinds of structures. 6 round structures are along the wadi; above there is a larger, rounded enclosure; on the slope there are several smaller, temporary structures which seem to be more recent. Finds: Flints, pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/459

Coordinates: 123.6/972.3 Description: Tumuli and courtyard structures. Finds: Flints, pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/460

Coordinates: 123.4/972.0 Description: Tumuli and piles of stones. Remains of agricultural terracing. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/461

Coordinates: 123.6/972.0 Description: Tumuli and piles of stones. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/462

Coordinates: 123.3/971.8 Description: A large site along a tributary of Wadi Karkom. Courtyard struc- tures and bases of stone structures. A small stone circle next to an alignment of 5 stele. Circular platforms with alter. Large enclosure. Remains of horizontal straight alignments of stones which could have been agricultural terraces. Finds: Flints, pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC, NAB, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/463a

Coordinates: 123.4/971.7 Description: Remains of a settlement of significant dimensions. 2 paved plat- forms with altar to the eastern side and another 3 smaller circular platforms. Oval and elongated structures aligned in series. Large enclosure and various stone circles. North, an enclosure whose condition indicates it is much older than the other structures. At least 4 stones with anthropomorphic features. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: MP, NEO?, BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 317.

BK/463b-c

Coordinates: 123.4/971.8 Description: Remains of an ancient encampment with a series of 9 structures. Adjacent to this site eastward, vestiges of a Bedouin encampment (site BK/463 c). Finds: Pottery. Large stone pestle. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/464

Coordinates: 123.3/971.7 Description: Remains of 4 major stone structures and several smaller ones, including stone circles and tumuli. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: BY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/464b

Coordinates: 123.4/971.7 Description: Several piles of stones and 2 stone circles. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/465

Coordinates: 123.6/971.5 Description: Piles of stones. Finds: Flint, pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/466

Coordinates: 122.6/972.2 Description: Remains of 2 circular, adjacent structures, each of which measures about 2 m. in diameter. Finds: Flint, pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/467a-c

Coordinates: 122.5/972.8 Description: Remains of a large enclosure and several tumuli. South, several heaps of stones on the slope (site BK/467 b). North, at least 2 groups of heaps of stones (site BK/467 c). The entire area appears to have been used by human groups during different periods. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/468

Coordinates: 122.4/971.8 Description: 1 paved platform (6 x 9 m.) and a smaller elevated stone circle; next to them, other structures. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/469

Coordinates: 122.4/971.7 Description: Remains of an elliptical structure; circles and piles of stones. Finds: Flint, pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/470

Coordinates: 122.5/971.5 Description: Remains of heaps of stones and structures. Finds: Flint, pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/471a

Coordinates: 122.8/971.6 Description: Remains of 4 stone structures on a terrace of the wadi, with evident signs of reconstruction and reutilization at different stages. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/471b

Coordinates: 122.8/971.6 Description: Several piles of stones on a low hill on the other side of the wadi, as well as various fairly ruined structures. Probably the remains of a short-term encampment. Finds: Unusual Pottery not found elsewhere in the area of HK or BK. Perhaps fragments dating to the Hellenistic period. Periods MC: HEL?. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/471c

Coordinates: 122.7/971.6 Description: 2 rectangular structures. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/471d

Coordinates: 122.9/971.6 Description: 2 rectangular structures and agricultural terracing. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/472a-b

Coordinates: 122.6/971.7 Description: 2 tumuli on the peak of a mountain. On the eastern slope, 3 hut floors (site BK/472 b). Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/473a-b

Coordinates: 122.9/971.9 Description: Remains of 2 main stone structures and a few heaps of stones on the northern terrace of the wadi. North, a stone circle. 50 m. further north, 2 rectangular enclosures. (site BK/473b ). Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/474a-c

Coordinates: 122.8/972.0 Description: 15 stone structures, mostly rectangular, at the confluence of 2 wadis. 10 of them have remains of well-built walls and appear to be dwelling units. They are organized in 3 rows of respectively 4, 3 and 3 structures. South, on the opposite side of the wadi, an isolated structure and alignments of stones (site BK/474 b). North of the wadi, an area covered by small heaps of stones appears to be a Bedouin cemetery. Periods MC: ISL, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/475a-b

Coordinates: 122.7/972.1 Description: Remains of a cluster of enclosures surrounded by dwelling units around. This is a typical pastoral site, which must have involved a large number of animals lead by few families. On the opposite side of the wadi northward, an isolated rounded structure (site BK/475 b). Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/476

Coordinates: 123.0/971.8 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing. Several heaps of stones, which indicate the location of a temporary camping, site. Finds: Fragment of a grinding stone. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/477a-c

Coordinates: 123.1/971.8 Description: Remains of 6 rectangular and 2 oval structures; agricultural terracing. 50 m. south, on both sides of the wadi, 6 stone built structures some of them appearing very old and 2 of them having been rebuilt probably in Byzantine times (site (BK/477b). Several heaps of stones arranged in a semicircle (site BK/477 c). Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 318.

BK/478

Coordinates: 123.1/972.0 Description: 8 small stone structures form a circle which measures about 35 m. in diameter. The inner circle appears as having been cleared of stones. West, 2 tumuli and several heaps of stones. About 40 m. east, remains of 2 stone circles. Finds: Numerous BAC flints. A small copper disk with 8 small circles, w hich seem to replicate the plan of the BAC settlement. Period MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319; EA87, p. 28, 29, & 179; AF95, p. 9.

BK/479

Coordinates: 123.2/971.7 Description: Several tombs and standing stones or menhirs. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: HEL, RBY. Rock Art: At least 3 engraved rocks, 1 of which has an early Arabic inscription. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/480a-b

Coordinates: 123.1/971.3 Description: Remains of stone structures, most of which are round and oval, extend over an area of 300 x 100 m.. Over 100 structures were counted. This is one of the largest settlements found in the entire area under exploration. 2 large circles and several low walls at the edge of the settlement, partly anomalous in type. On the western side a burial area with heaps of stones. On the top of 3 hills south, east, and north of the site, there are isolated stone structures, which may have been watchtowers (site BK/480 b). Superimposition of different periods. Finds: Abundant pottery could date to Persian or Hellenistic times. At 2 locations there is also Roman-Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: HEL, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319; EA88a, p. 116; EA93a, p. 55.

BK/481a-b

Coordinates: 123.2/971.2 Description: Remains of stone structures and an enclosure. 50 m. further south, remains of a temporary encampment (site BK/481 b). Finds: Abundant BAC flints, RBY and ISL pottery, and an LP bifacial hand-axe. A group of 4 rocks having naturally anthropomorphic shapes seem to have been collected and placed there by man. Periods MC: LP, BAC, HEL, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/482

Coordinates: 123.8/971.2 Description: Large circle and structure, whose purpose is most likely to collect water. Perhaps the remains of an ancient waterhole. Vestiges of agricultural terracing. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/483a

Coordinates: 123.5/970.7 Description: Remains of a stone enclosure, and a Bedouin camping site. Periods MC: NAB, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/483b

Coordinates: 123.6/970.7 Description: 3 tumuli on the hill 652. Site typology:

BK/484

Coordinates: 123.8/970.8 Description: Remains of an encampment. 6 locations, surrounded by stones that were removed from the inner area, may indicate the original localities of Bedouin tents. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/485

Coordinates: 122.5/970.7 Description: Remains of 3 oval stone structures on a plateau that commands a good view to the valley. Finds: Pottery of undefined type (HEL?). Periods MC: HEL?. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/486

Coordinates: 126.4/972.3 Description: Remains of 2 enclosures, presumably for livestock, and of 3 small heaps of stones on the terrace of the wadi. Further down along the wadi eastward, remains of 5 circular stone structures. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/487

Coordinates: 126.5/972.4 Description: Enclosure for livestock. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/488

Coordinates: 126.5/972.7 Description: Enclosure for livestock near some heaps of stones, which may indicate the location of a dwelling unit. A small rock shelter shows marks of having been used by man. 50 m. further north, remains of a camping site (Bedouin?). Periods MC: RBY, ISL?. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/489

Coordinates: 126.3/973.2 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment, probably quite ancient. A large enclosure possibly for livestock was discerned. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/490

Coordinates: 126.1/973.8 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment, which is not very recent. An enclosure for livestock and several heaps of stones. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/491

Coordinates: 122.2/970.3 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: UP, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/492a

Coordinates: 122.2/970.6 Description: Remains of 7 stone Description: 3 are rectangular and 4 are circular. They reflect 2 different phases of settlement. The rec- tangular structures are better preserved, and are undoubtedly later in date than the others. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/492b

Coordinates: 121.9/970.7 Description: Remains of a Bedouin encampment. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology:

BK/493

Coordinates: 122.3/970.8 Finds: Flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/494a-c

Coordinates: 121. 4/971. 3 Description: An enclosure, 3 living structures, 1 tumulus BAC and several heaps of stones, spread across 2 small hills. 50 m.. east, on the terraces of the overhanging wadi, there are 2 enclosures which are built differently. They seem likely to be RBY and presumably have been reused in Islamic times. On 1 of the hills there is a tumulus and remains of walls. The site is near a pass along an ancient trail. Periods MC: UP, MP, BAC, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 319.

BK/495

Coordinates: 122.2/971.8 Description: 8 rectangular structures along the terrace of the wadi. Further above, on the upper terraces, there are remains of stone align- ments which may have been an enclosure. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/496

Coordinates: 122.1/971.9 Description: Remains of low walls and piles of stones on a large entrenched terrace at a hairpin turn of the wadi. Bedouins evidently used several structures. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/497a-b

Coordinates: 121.9/972.0 Description: Remains of a large settlement stretching over an area of about 120 m., over 2 terraces of the wadi. On the upper terrace, there is a large circular enclosure and further east, 3 more large structures, which seem to be animal enclosures. On the lower terrace, remains of at least 5 rectangular structures. On the opposite side of the wadi southward, there are remains of at least 7 other rectangular living structures. This site undoubtedly represents different periods. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/498a-b

Coordinates: 121.5/972.0 Description: 2 rectangular structures. On the opposite side of the wadi there are the remains of another similar structure and perhaps the vestiges of a terrace. On the terrace above, a group of 5 structures and several heaps of stones are organized to form a semicircle (site BK/498 b). Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/499

Coordinates: 121.1/972.3 Description: Remains of a small village occupied in 2 different phases. On the upper terrace of the wadi are 2 BAC courtyard structures and a long wall, which may have been part of a very large enclosure. On the lower terrace are 5 oval structures, much better preserved and more recent. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.
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Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).


Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links


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