Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
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Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

A cave on Har Karkom yielded evidence of habitation by a single individual


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BEER KARKOM SITES 500-599

BK/500

Coordinates: 121.2/973.3 Description: Remains of a hamlet used in 2 different periods. On the upper terrace, there are 2 courtyard structures of the BAC period, on the lower terrace, 5 oval structures in a better state of preservation; they are from a later period (probably RBY). Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/500a

Coordinates: 121.2/973.2 Description: 1 courtyard structure on the upper terrace of the wadi. Finds: Flint BAC. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/500b

Coordinates: 121.2/973.3 Description: On the wadi's terrace, west of site BK/571, 5 bases of dwelling structures. Finds: Pottery BYZ. Periods MC: BYZ. Site typology:

BK/500c

Coordinates: 121.0/973.3 Description: In a widening of the terrace, south of the wadi, remains of oval, round and courtyard structures were found. 4 of the structures are on 1 side and there are 3 on the other. In the center of the site in what appears to be some sort of common ground, there is a standing monolith of natural shape with a sort of a monstrous face. High up along the terrace, remains of terraced-fields, the same type as site BK/502 b. They are interrupted by the erosional wall of the wadi (2.5 m.). Finds: Pottery RBY, ISL. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology:

BK/500 d

Coordinates: 121.0/973.4 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing in a shallow area of the wadi. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/500 e

Coordinates: 121.2/ 973.2 Description: Remains of a stone-built enclosure and stone circle on a slight hill. Site typology:

BK/500 f

Coordinates: 121.3/973.2 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing and artificial hole, probably a clay quarry. Site typology:

BK/501a-b

Coordinates: 121.5/973.3 Description: On the 2 sides of the wadi, there are 2 groups of oval structures at a short distance 3 from each other, 1 with 7 structures in a row, the other with 2 large structures, each of which has a smaller one beside it and 3 additional structures 60 m. west. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320; EA87, p.189.

BK/501 c

Coordinates: 121.6/973.4 Structures : Next to an ancient clay quarry, there are several round structures, 1 larger than the others. The clay quarry contains clots of native iron. It might be one reason for its exploitation. Presumably, the materials have been used to produce pottery as well. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/501 d

Coordinates: 121.6/973.3 Description: On the slope there are some oval courtyard structures together making a large circle, probably a plaza site. The presence of numerous flint mallets indicates the performance of some sort of artisanship. In the wadi valley, at the foot of the site there are later remains (RBY?). In front of the site itself, on the other side of the wadi there are areas of clay with evident traces of the exploitation of a quarry. Finds: Flints (LP), with biface (LP); pottery and a fragment of a grindstone (BAC). Dimensions: Structures 2.20 x 1.70 m.. Site typology: Periods MC: LP, MP, BAC.

BK/501 e

Coordinates: 121.7/973.2 Description: On the terrace of a small lateral wadi, remains of stone enclosures likely forming a courtyard site. 5 structures are aligned on the terrace above and about 50 m. further north, remains of a rectangular structure in a better state of preservation. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/502

Coordinates: 122.3/973.7 Description: Along the wadi terrace there are the remains of 10 stone dwelling units. 1 of them appears to have been reused more recently. Nearby, a few other heaps of stone. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Bibliography: EA86, p. 320. Site typology:

BK/502 b

Coordinates: 122.4/973.7 Structure: Remains of a rectangular structure and some heaps of stone. Finds: Flints (PSU and BAC); Pottery (Iron Age and RBY); Flint tools include mallets (BAC). Periods MC: UP, BAC, IA, RBY. Site typology:

BK/503

Coordinates: 124.3/974.8 Description: A circular structure and several tumuli on a terrace at the corner of a wadi. Several rock shelters, 1 of which has an enclosing wall. A tumulus at the peak of the hill. On the opposite bank of the wadi, an enclosure for livestock. Next to it, the remains of a Bedouin camp. A small rock shelter with traces of coal and ashes. Finds: Pottery RBY. Periods MC: RBY. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock, with 2 quadrupeds and several signs. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/504

Coordinates: 121.8/970.8 Description: 2 large enclosures; in the middle of each one there is a tumulus. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/504b

Coordinates: 121.7/970.8 Description: 2 small stone circles (diam. 1.2 m. for 1, 1.5 m. for the other). In the middle of each circle is a big stone. 1 of them has fallen over, the other is still standing. Finds: In 1 of the 2 circles a fan scraper was collected. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology:

BK/504c

Coordinates: 121.7/970.9 Description: Remains of walls on the terrace of the wadi. Bedouin encampment. Periods MC: UP, ISL. Site typology:

BK/505

Coordinates: 121.8/970.6 Description: Bases of 5 oval-shaped dwelling stone structures and several heaps of stones. 1 of the structures was reutilized at a later date. On the opposite side of the wadi is 1 isolated dwelling structure of the same type. Remains of a Bedouin camp are found nearby. Finds: Flint and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Bibliography: EA86, p. 320. Site typology:

BK/506a

Coordinates: 121.6/970.2 Description: Settlement on 2 terraces of the wadi. On the upper terrace, 2 large stone circles surrounded by several minor structures, tumuli and low walls. On the lower terrace, remains of a small village with 9 rectangular structures on 1 bank and 3 on the other. In all, there are 14 dwelling structures that appear to have been reutilized at various periods. This large site was subdivided into 5 sections: A. Village with 9 dwellings on the northern terrace of the wadi. 3 phases can be distinguished: circular BAC huts, RBY rectangular structures and reconstructions, ISL tombs. B. The area of the 2 large stone circles on the upper terrace, where all the constructions date to the BAC period. C. Flint workshop on the hill northwest of the settlement. Large concentration of BAC flints over an area of 20x12 m.. D. The group of structures on the southern terrace of the wadi. 3 phases: Circular BAC huts, rectangular RBY structure, ISL tombs. E. Hilltop to the west of the settlement, where abundant BAC flints were found. Also abundant LP flints and bifaces; some of these are very big hand-axes. Periods: LP, BAC. F. Inside the wadi northwest of the settlement, remains of quarries with evidence of artificial excavation and BAC flints were found. Several flint tools with unusual characteristics must have served for the excavations of the mine, which contains clay, and large lumps of ochre in brilliant reds, yellows, oranges, and browns and blue-violets. Finds: Abundant flints and pottery plant sample. Periods MC: LP, BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320; EA87, pp.112, 113 & 216; EA93a, p. 38.

BK/506b

Coordinates: 121.6/970.4 Description: On a small hill between 2 wadis, a large concentration of upper Palaeolithic fine flint tools with whitish patina. A few MP flints with darker patina. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP, UP (Gravettian). Site typology: Bibliography: EA97b, p. 20.

BK/507a

Coordinates: 121.1/970.2 Description: 3 groups of enclosures for livestock and 3 dwelling structures on both sides of the wadi. 507a (121.1/970.2) is a courtyard structure of BAC type. Flints inched a fan scraper. 507b (121.2/970.2) and 507c (121.3/970.1) have Byzantine and Islamic pottery. Heaps of stones indicate the location of tombs. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Courtyard. Bibliography: EA86, p. 320; EA87, pp. 112 & 114. 507bCoordinates: 121.2/970.2 Description: Enclosure for livestock and dwelling structure. Has Byzantine and Islamic pottery. Heaps of stones indicate the location of tombs. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320. 507cCoordinates: 121.3/970.1 Description: Enclosure for livestock and dwelling structure. Has Byzantine and Islamic pottery. Heaps of stones indicate the location of tombs. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/508a-b

Coordinates: 121.3/970.9 Description: One BAC tumulus and 5 older heaps of stones. This site is located on 2 small adjacent hills on the slopes of the mountain. Large quantities of flint implements are spread all over. The heaps are likely to be the remains of an Upper Palaeolithic campsite. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA86, p. 320.

BK/509

Coordinates: 123.6/973.7 Description: 18 tumuli, 2 of which are much larger than the others. This may well be a Byzantine cemetery, probably the cemetery of site HK/447. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/510

Coordinates: 123.5/973.2 Description: 2 isolated standing rocks in a small lateral steep valley. 1 is almost cubical; the other is vertical and slim and has a naturally anthropomorphic shape. A path leads to the rocks and ends in a small open area in front of them. Site typology:

BK/511

Coordinates: 122.2/971.9 Description: A plaza circle formed of 18 circular heaps of stones. Finds: Abundant archaic BAC flints, of a Chalcolithic tradition. Periods MC: BAC, MEP. Site typology: Bibliography: EA87, pp. 29, 30 & 193.

BK/511b

Coordinates: 122.2/971.9 Description: On a superior terrace in front of site BK/511, to the SW, heaps of stones and a flint industry rich in cores UP (?). Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Site typology:

BK/511c

Coordinates: 122.2/971.9 Finds: Isolated biface near site BK/511 b. Periods MC: LEP. Site typology:

BK/512a

Coordinates: 121.5/971.8 Description: Courtyard stone structure, 2 circular structures and an engraved Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Periods RA: IV/A. Site typology:

BK/512b

Coordinates: 121.5/971.8 Description: Nomadic campsite, probably BAC. Periods MC: BAC?. Site typology:

BK/513a

Coordinates: 123.3/970.3 Description: Around a large boulder which had fallen from the mountain, a few piles and alignments of stones were arranged. North of the boulder about 10 stones form a row aligned with the boulder itself and with Har Karkom about 2km away, which stands in the background. Continuing this alignment toward Har Karkom, about 60 m. from the boulder are the remains of a circular paved platform, diameter 9 m.. Next to the boulder eastward, are the remains of a flint workshop with cores and flakes in situ. A few BAC retouched blades and scrapers. Westward, 30 m. from the boulder a cavity opens into the rock face. Finds: Abundant flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/513b

Coordinates: 123.0/970.6 Description: Heaps of stones and flint flakes. Perhaps remains of an ancient encampment. Site typology:

BK/514

Coordinates: 123.0/970.8 Description: In a small lateral valley about 10 piles of stones, of which 2 are bigger than the others. They are probably remains of a temporary encampment Site typology:

BK/515a

Coordinates: 123.3/973.7 Description: A plaza circle of at least 11 circular structures, of which only 2 are well preserved on the slope of the hamada. 3 of them are large enough to have served as dwelling units. It is located at the center of the saddle separating Beer Karkom from site BK/407, 1 point of the last stretch from which one sees the mountain of Har Karkom in the background to the southeast. Finds: Flint implements and numerous hammering tools. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: 1 white engraved stone (Bedouin?). Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Bibliography: EA87, pp. 29, 30 & 199.

BK/515b

Coordinates: 123.3/973.6 Description: On a hill, southeast of the plaza, signs of encampment (stone circles) and designs made with small stones (pebble drawings). Workshop with many cores and hammering tools. Large cores in the middle of the stone structures. Some flints show chipping due to fire. Finds: Flints; Natural iron nodules. Periods MC: LP, BAC. Rock art: 1 white engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C,VI. Site typology:

BK/515c

Coordinates: 123.2/973.7 Description: 1 oval habitation structure made of stones, and several secondary structures around, with Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/515d

Coordinates: 123.3/973.8 Description: 2 stone structures surrounded by several smaller ones. Site typology:

BK/516

Coordinates: 122.2/972.4 Description: 3 stone enclosures at a distance of 65-70 m. from one another along a well-marked ancient trail following the occidental terrace of a small wadi. Site typology:

BK/517

Coordinates: 121.6/972.4 Description: A structure with courtyard and remains of low walls in a promi- nent location, on a spur of the mountain. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/518

Coordinates: 121.3/972.5 Description: A small complex of walls with a courtyard structure. Periods MC: BAC?. Site typology:

BK/519

Coordinates: 121.5/972.6 Description: On the top of a mountain, 7-8 hut floors, organized in a circle. Site typology:

BK/520

Coordinates: 122.3/972.8 Description: Circle of about 10 small heaps of stones in a prominent position. Site typology:

BK/521

Coordinates: 121.6/972.3 Description: Remains of a much-trampled trail. A few piles of stones at the side of the trail. Site typology:

BK/522

Coordinates: 122.3/972.0 Description: A large "S" shaped wall, with a few additional walls and struc- tures around it. Probably originally a group of animal enclosures. Site typology:

BK/523

Coordinates: 121.7/971.8 Description: One rectangular and 1 oval structure, probably RBY. Periods MC: RBY?. Site typology:

BK/524

Coordinates: 122.3/971.9 Description: 2 rectangular structures on the terrace of the wadi and a few piles of stones. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/525

Coordinates: 120.8/971.3 Description: Group of three hut floors and some smaller cleaned surfaces. Finds: Gravettian flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography:

BK/526

Coordinates: 120.7/971.4 Description: Remains of a large campsite with 18 hut floors. Finds: Gravettian flints: two endscrapers with steep retouch, one burin and a puncher. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography:

BK/527

Coordinates: 120.6/971.5 Description: Remains of 9 hut floors and minor stone structures. An orthostat. Finds: Flints from a final Gravettian, among them some button end- scrapers. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, orthostat. Bibliography:

BK/528

Coordinates: 120.4/971.7 Description: Remains of two hut floors and some other areas cleared of stones. Stone structures, among them a wall, 10 m long and 2 m wide and several tumuli. At the centre of one tumulus there is an orthostat, still standing. Finds: Flints of late UP (Gravettian). A hammerstone. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, orthostat, tumuli. Bibliography:

BK/529a

Coordinates: 120.4/971.8 Description: Remains of 17 hut floors. Finds: Flints of an early Gravettian phase: end-scrapers on flake, end scrapers and points with steep retouch, burins, denticulated blades. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography:

BK/529b

Coordinates: 120.4/972.1 Description: Surface cleared oval areas indicate hut floors; two squared pole holes and a third one, round. Finds: Abundant Iron Age pottery sherds. Periods MC: IA. Site typology: Encampment Bibliography:

BK/529c

Coordinates: 120.4/972.2 Description: On the top of a hill, about 100 m West of site BK/529b, a tumulus with diameter 6x4 m. In the surroundings some areas cleared of stones. Finds: Flint flakes. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Tumulus. Bibliography:

BK/529d

Coordinates: 120.4/972.3 Description: Remains of three hut floors about 100 m NW of BK/529c. Inside a hut floor a stone structure with a fallen orthostat. Finds: Scarce flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, orthostat. Bibliography:

BK/530a

Coordinates: 120.2/972.3 Description: Surface cleared round shaped areas indicate a temporary encampment. Two tumuli and a stone semi-circle. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Site typology: Encampment, stone circle, tumuli. Bibliography:

BK/530b

Coordinates: 120.1/972.2 Description: Surface cleared areas indicate a temporary encampment. A stone circle. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Site typology: Encampment, stone circle. Bibliography:

BK/531

Coordinates: 120.7/972.6 Description: Remains of 2 large stone-built animal enclosures. Site typology:

BK/532a

Coordinates: 121.9/973.5 Description: 3 large animal enclosures, 1 base of stone-built living structure and several hut floors, on both sides of the wadi at the junction of 3 ancient trails. Site typology:

BK/532b

Coordinates: 122.3/973.6 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing interrupted by the erosion wall of the wadi bed. When utilized, they occupied a wadi-bed about 1 m. higher than its present level. The construction is unique and consists of 3 stone rows. The architecture is similar to the courtyard site in its immediate vicinity. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/533

Coordinates: 120.8/974.0 Description: Large stone circle. Site typology:

BK/534

Coordinates: 120.8/974.3 Description: Several heaps of stones along a beaten trail. Site typology:

BK/535

Coordinates: 120.9/974.4 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing and a Bedouin cemetery. Site typology:

BK/536

Coordinates: 120.9/ 974.5 Description: Plaza site with 12 stone structures, 1 has a habitation room. Several stone barrows around the plaza. An alignment of stones constituting a step could distinguish between the outside and inside of the plaza. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC, UP. Site typology: Bibliography: EA87, p. 205.

BK/537

Coordinates: 120.5/974.5 Description: 3 structures, 1 of them oval and 2 of them rectangular. 2 small barrows, (probably tombs). Agricultural terracing. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/538

Coordinates: 120.6/974.5 Description: 6 heaps of stones in a row. Site typology:

BK/538b

Coordinates: 120.7/974.6 Site typology:

BK/538 c

Coordinates: 120.9/974.5 Description: Nomadic encampment on the gravel-bed of the wadi and several rectangular stone structures. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/539a

Coordinates: 121.0/974.6 Description: Courtyard structures (BAC) and, 20 m. away, there are 6 smaller structures. It is almost completely formed by big siliceous bulbs in ovoid form, also remains of a third smaller structure with an oval wall. Finds: Flint flakes and some tools of very poor quality. Periods MC: BAC?. Site typology:

BK/539b

Coordinates: 121.1/974.5 Description: Remains of agricultural terraces and a long row of stones which was probably used as a canal for the collection of water. Site typology:

BK/540

Coordinates: 120.9/974.7 Description: 4 stone-built oval structures in a row. Site typology:

BK/541

Coordinates: 120.7/974.9 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment with at least 5 hut floors and 2 stone barrows, alignments of stones. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/542

Coordinates: 121.2/974.8 Description: At least 5 hut floors. Site typology:

BK/543

Coordinates: 121.3/974.8 Description: A stone-built animal enclosure. Site typology:

BK/544

Coordinates: 121.3/975,3 Description: Remains of 3 stone-built structures. The central one is larger and almost rectangular; the other 2 are oval. Site typology:

BK/545

Coordinates: 121.3/975,4 Description: Remains of 5 small heaps of stones forming a semicircle. Site typology:

BK/546

Coordinates: 121.1/ 975.5 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment with 4 stone barrows, probably tombs, there is about 10 m. from barrow to barrow and they form the corners of a rectangle. Finds: Pottery, Atypical worked flints. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology:

BK/547

Coordinates: 121.5/975.6 Description: 5 small stone barrows forming a circle. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/547 b

Coordinates: 121.6/975.6 Description: Small oval barrows of about 1.20 m. x 1.60 m., 15 m. to the south there is a stone circle. Some other small round and oval barrows are scattered about. The site looks like a large graveyard. Site typology:

BK/548a

Coordinates: 121.4/ 975.7 Description: On a low hill there is a long barrow in tang form, surrounded by a stone circle. At the foot of the hill, to the south there are remains of agricultural terracing. Site typology:

BK/548b

Coordinates: 121.5/975.7 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment and some Bedouin tombs. Finds: Pottery, Flints. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology:

BK/ 549a

Coordinates: 120.2/977.4 Description: Remains of a living place with round structures (RBY) near the traces of a Bedouin camp. On the other side of a small wadi, there is a rock shelter, with evidence of recent utilization. Some of the structures show a stage of remaking, possibly Islamic. Each dwelling unit has 1 or 2 pillars inside or near the entrance. The rich vegetation suggests the presence of water at a slight depth. Description of pillars from the north, southward: The first 2 round huts have pillars on the south side. HUT 1:An anthropomorphic pillar apparently modeled at the top HUT 2: A fallen pillar, in a corner there is a standing stone with strange shapes, held upright by small stones. HUT 3:An anthropomorphic pillar on its south HUT 4:A fallen pillar on its north side. HUT 5:A pillar just inside the entrance. HUT 6:2 small pillars at the entrance facing South. HUT 7:2 pillars at the sides of the entrance facing south. HUT 8:There is a raised rectangular area inside the hut. In front of it there are 4 standing pillars. A smaller fifth one was probably added at a later date. HUT 9: A standing pillar inside the wall with remains of a built stone step in front. On the other side there is a smaller pillar. All of these pillars have strange anthropomorphic natural forms partly reshaped by man. None of the pillars have been fully modeled by man except 1 in HUT 3. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology:

BK/549b

Coordinates: 120.3/977.3 Description: 50 m. east of site BK/549, along the wadi, a pillar, a flat stone, and an anthropomorphic-shaped stone were recovered. 10 m. south, there is a rectangular structure with 6 nearly vertical pillars inside. The site seems to have been intentionally arranged as a sort of stage for some performance. Site typology:

BK/549 c

Coordinates: 120.4/977.3 Description: An oval dwelling unit on the terrace at the bend of the wadi. The same type as site BK/549b. Finds: Grindstone made of gray-pink granite from southern Sinai; Pottery Roman. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/550

Coordinates: 120.5/977.8 Description: 500 m. of agricultural terracing at the juncture of 2 trails. Site typology:

BK/551

Coordinates: 120.0/978,0 Description: Agricultural terracing. Site typology:

BK/551b

Coordinates: 120.2/978.0 Description: Remains of nomadic camps. Finds: Islamic Pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology:

BK/552

Coordinates: 120.2/978,4 Description: Remains of a stone circle ( 7x6 m. ) with standing stone. It looks like a ceremonial structure. No material culture. Site typology:

BK/552b

Coordinates: 120.2/978.3 Description: Remains of nomads camp and agricultural terraces. Anthropomorphic stele of natural shape partly completed by human hands. Site typology:

BK/553a

Coordinates: 120.2/978,8 Description: Remains of 2 small stone-built dwelling units and a stone circle. Site typology:

BK/553b

Coordinates: 120.3/978,6 Description: Remains of several structures and heaps of stones. A private shrine?, 2 parallel alignments of stones (ca. 12 m.) with a standing stone in the middle. No pottery. Site typology:

BK/554

Coordinates: 120.7/977.4 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing on the wadi's terrace. Remains of a vertical well (Roman or later) with an anthropomorphic- shaped stone and concentration of vegetation nearby including an acacia tree and a circle of standing stones some of which have fallen. 3 hut floors. Finds: Worked flints; Pottery. Site typology:

BK/555

Coordinates: 120.2/976.3 Description: Remains of an enclosure and 1 small stone-built structure. Site typology:

BK/556

Coordinates: 120.5/975,6 Description: 4 stone-built structures. Site typology:

BK/556 b

Coordinates: 120.7/975.6 Description: Stone structure and hut remains. Finds: Flint. Site typology:

BK/557

Coordinates: 120.6/974.7 Description: 2 large stone-built dwelling units and a few heaps of stones nearby. A stone-built wall connects the 2 dwelling units, about 10 m. long which is likely to have been part of an enclosure for animals. Site typology:

BK/558

Coordinates: 120.4/974.6 Description: 7 hut floors forming a circle. Site typology:

BK/559

Coordinates: 120.3/974.4 Description: Nomadic encampment and remains of a village with stone bases of structures built next to one another, between the wadi-bed and a secondary wadi. On a higher terrace, there is a courtyard and several heaps of stone with flint and pottery (IA) from the Iron Age. Around the site grows wild wheat and oats, possibly remaining from past villages. In the wadi below large bushes grow indicating water at slight depths. Half of a structure has been washed away by the wadi, signifying strong erosive activity after utilization of the site. Finds: Pottery; Flint. Site typology:

BK/560

Coordinates: 121.6/974.7 Description: Atelier for flint production. Finds: 3 cores and numerous flint flakes. Periods MC: UP. Site typology:

BK/561

Coordinates: 121.4/975.4 Description: On a hill a group of tumuli, presumably a necropolis. The tumuli are upset and probably they have been excavated by Bedouins. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/562

Coordinates: 120.7/ 975.2 Description: Nomadic encampment with remains of 8 basements of stone structures. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology:

BK/ 563

Coordinates: 120.9/975.1 Description: Large barrow surrounded by 5 smaller heaps of stones. No material culture has been found despite intense search. Site typology:

BK/564

Coordinates: 121.3/974.4 Description: A naturally anthropomorphic-shaped stone emerges from the slope. Man has completed the nose and 1 of the eyes. A flint core is several meters below. 15 m. away, a fallen boulder boasts hammer marks on 1 side. Site typology:

BK/565

Coordinates: 121.3/974.6 Description: Between 2 wadi there are stone barrows and an alignment of stones. Site typology:

BK/566

Coordinates: 121.4/976.7 Description: Barrows of stones along the side of a path. The barrow covers a cyst-grave that was found open. Finds: Flint. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/567

Coordinates: 121.3/976.9 Description: A stone circle with 3 monoliths in the middle. 1 is still erect and the other 2 have fallen. The standing monolith has a modeled top and traces of faint engravings. The engravings include 2 ibexes and an anthropomorphic figure. Finds: Numerous flints; Some flakiness appear to be rather recent. Periods RA: III. Site typology:

BK/568

Coordinates: 120.8/977.3 Description: On the wadi terrace in front of a landslide there is a standing pillar; in front of it lies a large stone. Finds: Islamic pottery, 3 BAC and other flint implements having Holocene patina. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology:

BK/569

Coordinates: 120.6/977.6 Description: Barrow and recently added windbreak walls. Site typology:

BK/569b

Coordinates: 128.8/977.7 Description: Remains of a nomadic camp with grindstone. Finds: Islamic and RBY Pottery. UP flint tools. Periods MC: UP, RBY, ISL. Site typology:

BK/570

Coordinates: 120.4/977.4 Description: Group of standing stone pillars that have all fallen in the same direction, 5 of them have been erected and given a prominent position, 2 of them with uncertain position are on the ground. In the same group is an anthropomorphic-shaped stone.

BK/571

Coordinates: 121.8/976.6 Description: Large barrow on the top of a hill, east of the wadi Bereka, constructed with black and white stones. Finds: Natural monstrous-shaped rock 100 m. north of site BK/571. Site typology:

BK/572

Coordinates: 122.6/973.6 Description: A stone enclosure. Finds: Pottery.

BK/573

Coordinates: 120.4/970.9 Description: Remains of nomadic campsite with fireplace. Site typology: Encampment.

BK/574

Coordinates: 120.4/971.2 Description: 3 hut floors: 1 big and 2small, 1 of which with 3 stone circles, vertical orthostats and 1 heap of stones reused twice. Probably 2 different periods. Finds: Flints: Karkomian or Aurignacian, 2 implements are retouched in BAC technique. Periods MC: UP (beginning of), BAC. Site typology:

BK/575

Coordinates: 120.5/971.3 Description: On 2 hill tops, at the distance of 150 m, 2 tumuli. Site typology:

BK/576

Coordinates: 121.3/970.6 Description: Upper Palaeolithic flint working station. Site typology:

BK/577

Coordinates: 121.1/971.8

BK/578

Coordinates: 121.0/971.9

BK/579

Coordinates: 121.2/971.8

BK/580

Coordinates: 121.1/971.7

BK/581

Coordinates: 121.0/971.5

BK/582

Coordinates: 121.1/971.4

BK/583a-b

Coordinates: 126.3/971.0 Rock Art: BK/583a: 3 engraved rocks; BK/583b: 1 wassum engraved rock. Periods RA: IV/C, VI. Site typology:

BK/584

Coordinates: 126.4/970.9 Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV/C. Site typology:

BK/584b

Coordinates: 126,510/970,920 Description: One engraved rock. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, ISL Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C. Site typology: Rock art.

BK/585

Coordinates: 126.3/970.8 Description: On a slope of a wadi, a cave and an enclosure in front of it. Rich vegetation indicates the presence of water in the wadi below. Site typology:

BK/586

Coordinates: 126.5/970.7 Rock Art: Engraved rocks towards the edge of the mountain chain. Periods RA: V. Site typology:

BK/587

Coordinates: 126.4/971.0 Description: 3 hut floors. Periods MC: MEP. Site typology:

BK/590

Coordinates: 121.3/971.9 Description: Large station with about 12 stone structures with BAC flint implements and pottery. Finds: Pottery, flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:

BK/591

Coordinates: 121.3/971.7 Description: Above the trail, on the edge of a hill, a stone structure of 2 small circles and a large stone with natural groves which look like an altar. Site typology: Shrine.

BK/592

Coordinates: 121.5/972.0 Description: A campsite along the trail. Iron Age pottery. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: IA. Site typology: Encampment.
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Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).


Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links


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