Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
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We found over 1,200 archaeological sites


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HAR KARKOM SITES 100-199

HK/100

Coordinates: 124.3/968.5 Description: A plain slightly below the plateau reveals an ensemble of stones, which mark the remains of a bivouac. Natural crevices on two sides make this a particularly well- protected site. Rock Art: 4 rocks with figures of different patinas. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art, station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/101a-b

Coordinates: 124.3/968.3 Description: A stone alignment, which completes a natural shape, seems to be the remains of a geoglyph. Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Geoglyph, rock art, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/102a

Coordinates: 124.3/968.7 Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/102b

Coordinates: 124.4/968.6 Description: Remains of 3 round hut floors and 3 flint workshops of the Middle Palaeolithic period. In the flat area below, there are traces of Bedouin agricultural terracing Finds: Flints flaked with the Levallois technique. Periods MC: MP. Rock Art: Northwest of the site, there are 2 rocks with engravings from different phases and with different patinas. 1 engraving represents a dog with an open mouth in pursuit of an antelope. Another represents a camel. Periods RA: IV-C, V. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshops, terrace. Bibliography EA86, p. 305.

HK/103

Coordinates: 125.4/968.8 Description: Stone circle. Standing stone near rock art. Periods MC: MP, UP. Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. Scenes include depiction of a struggle between 2 horsemen and Bedouin wassum. 1 of the rocks has a deeply engraved relief which is likely to have been an anthropomorphic face now partly destroyed. Periods RA: V, VI-VII. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, orthostats, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/104a

Coordinates: 125.55/970.0 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors, 1 on the NW is very large (16x5 m in size), that on SE is round (3-4 in diameter m), and in the middle, a small oval area. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/104b

Coordinates: 125.5/969.3 Description: A large enclosure for animals. A green area may indicate a source of water nearby. A rock shelter 50 m north. Periods MC: ISL. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Enclosure, rock art, rock shelter.

HK/105

Coordinates: 125.7/968.9 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors connected by a path. Some stones make a small heap on the floor of the central hut and a boulder inside another hut. Finds: Abundant worked flints of high quality, likely to belong to a final phase of the Mousterian. Predominantly flakes but a few rough blades are also present. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/106a

Coordinates: 125.99/968.85 Description: Remains of 7 round hut floors, 1 of which has a group of flint cores in the centre. All around there are worked flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. To the east, a V- shaped rock has, nearby, a rough stone-built structure. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/106b

Coordinates: 126.2/968.9 Description: Temporary encampment Finds: One flint blade. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Encampment Bibliography:

HK/106c

Coordinates: 126.2/968.8 Description: Flint workshop. A flint nucleus of Middle Palaeolithic could still be connected to three MP flakes, detached by Levallois technique. The nucleus has been re-utilized to detach one or two flakes during the BAC period (showing a much later patina). Finds: Flints: MP and BAC flakes. Byzantine pottery, fragment of copper vessel. Periods MC: MP, BAC, RBY. Rock Art: Three engraved rocks on a terrace. The hammerstone used for rock engravings was still lying near a rock. Periods RA: AR IV-A, VI. Site typology: Flint workshop; rock art. Bibliography:

HK/106d

Coordinates: 126,60/968,46 Description: Large ceremonial site on two terraces placed at two different levels along a path coming from Paran desert and directed to the edge of the mountain plateau. At the first level, a private shrine with a stone circle is in front of a pillar. The surface inside the circle has been carefully cleared of stones. Two trails connect the upper with the lower level from North and South. At the lower level, several stone structures including: a boulder surrounded by two concentric stone circles; a stone alignment in semi-circle near another boulder; another oval-shaped stone structure; at least 5 tumuli. Flint workshop. The site, BAC in type, appears to have been utilized also during RBY. Two small rock shelters above the upper level have been closed by low walls. At the lower level, more have been built up by closing small rock shelters with stone walls. These small rock shelters closed by built walls are likely to contain Islamic burials. Finds: BAC flints, among them "cananean" blades from the Early Bronze Age. BAC, Byzantine and Islamic pottery. Copper vessel fragment. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL Rock Art: One engraved rock on the upper level. Periods RA: AR IV-A, VII. Site typology: Boulder; flint workshop; rock art; rock shelter; shrine; stone circle; tumuli. Bibliography:

HK/106e

Coordinates: 126,30/968,46 Description: Squared stone structure, using a boulder on one side. The inner surface has been carefully cleared of stones. On one corner there is a group of stones fallen from above. Finds: Rough, red painted pottery, likely to be Neolithic. Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: NEO, RBY. Site typology: Living sites-other. Bibliography:

HK/106f

Coordinates: 126.1/969.0 Description: Large flint workshop, scattered over a surface of 3000 m2. Finds: Flint nuclei, flakes and tools. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Flint workshop. Bibliography:

HK/107

Coordinates: 126.18/969.13 Description: Black stones are organised in a row, 4 of them are engraved. Remains of a bivouac with fireplace in a crevice (Islamic?) Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. Periods RA: V, VI. Site typology: Encampment, fireplace, rock art, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/107b

Coordinates: 126.22/968.08 Description: Two tumuli on the saddle connecting the sites HK 107 and HK 108. Finds: A large flint scraper and a large bifacial tool are both of BAC period. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Tumuli. Bibliography:

HK/108

Coordinates: 126.34/969.15 Description: Large flat area on the saddle at the extreme north end of Har Karkom. A large number of dark boulders seem to have been beaten there intentionally. They are aligned and form a large oval shape measuring about 60 m in length. Several of these dark rocks are engraved with figures. Finds: Flints from the Middle Palaeolithic period; some of them have BAC retouching. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Rock art, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/109

Coordinates: 126.5/969.6 Description: Isolated hill, which marks the northern most point of the mountain. There is a wide plateau at its top with large stones, several of which have been placed in their positions intentionally, forming circles. 2 tumuli. A deep crevice shows signs of having been used as a shelter. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic and BAC period. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks with figures from different phases and with different patinas. A pair of ideograms found at other sites of the mountain is also represented here. Periods RA: IV-A, V, VI-VII. Site typology: Rock art, rock shelter, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/110a

Coordinates: 125.7/968.7 Rock Art: 13 engraved rocks. Hunting scene with bow-and-arrow and dogs. Periods RA: III, IV-A. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/110b

Coordinates: 125.8/968.7 Finds: Worked flints from the Upper Palaeolithic, many of which show traces of secondary retouching dating to the BAC period, are found next to the concentration of rock art at site HK/110. A few flints of BAC type include fan scrapers. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/111

Coordinates: 125.72/968.6 Description: Stone circles in connection with rock art. Finds: Flints of BAC type, which have reutilised Palaeolithic flints. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: About 12 engraved rocks. Several fine figures of animals executed in a virtually filiform technique. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Rock art, stone circles. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306; EA93a, p. 48.

HK/112

Coordinates: 125.68/968.52 Description: Remains of stone alignments. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks, 1 of which is quite large. Hunting scene. Colour differences in the patina of different figures make a clear stratigraphy. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art, stone alignments. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/113a

Coordinates: 125.5/968.4 Finds: Flints from the Palaeolithic and BAC periods. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: Four engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI-VII. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/113b

Coordinates: 125.6/968.3 Description: Remains of a round hut floor, remains of geoglyphs. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks. Periods RA: II?, IVA,VI-VII?. Site typology: Campsite, geoglyph. Bibliography: EA96b, p. 25.

HK/113c

Coordinates: 125.5/968.3 Description: Remains of a round hut floor. Finds: Anomalous flint flakes and blades of an early phase Upper Palaeolithic (Karkomian?). Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/113d

Coordinates: 125.3/968.4 Description: 4 round, small hut floors, aligned northeast-southwest. Finds: An Acheulean hand-axe. Flints of the early Upper Palaeolithic period (Karkomian). Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/114a

Coordinates: 125.6/968.5 Description: 7 oval hut floors west of the ravine edge. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: UP. Rock Art: 7 engraved rocks. One is rather large and has about 50 figures across its surface. Periods RA: IVA, IVC, VI-VII. Site typology: Campsite, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/114b

Coordinates: 125.8/968.5 Description: Remains of 2 hut floors, the one to the west is round, the other, larger, is oval-shaped (4x2, 5 m in size) at SE. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/114c

Coordinates: 125.9/968.6 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors aligned in direction E-W. A double stone alignment leads to a semi-circle with a stone in the middle. The stone structure and the hut floors belong to two different periods. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, stone alignment.

HK/114d

Coordinates: 125.8/968.6 Description: Some 100 m west of site 114c, an isolated round hut floor on the hamada. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/115

Coordinates: 125.6/968.4 Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. A Nabataean inscription and engravings of periods IV-A and IV-C. A hunting scene from period III. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C. Site typology: Inscription, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/116

Coordinates: 125.44/968.48 Description: Remains of an encampment with stone alignments and circles. It has been reused recently (Bedouin?). Site typology: Encampment, stone alignment, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/117

Coordinates: 125.3/968.5 Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks. Periods RA: V, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/118

Coordinates: 125.2/968.5 Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks. Periods RA: V, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/119

Coordinates: 124.5/968.5 Description: On the edge of the plateau, remains of 6 round hut floors in a semi-circle. Finds: Aurignacian flints. A Gravettian core. Periods MC: UP. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock with 3 animals in 3 various styles. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V. Site typology: Campsite, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/119b

Coordinates: 124.5/968.6 Description: Upper Palaeolithic site with 3 hut floors. The largest is oval-shaped (7 x 5 m) and is placed in a natural depression of the rock. The other 2 huts are placed on north. A path reaching a big flint workshop crosses the site. Another flint workshop north of the site. Finds: UP flints (Aurignacian denticulated). Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/120a

Coordinates: 125.7/967.9 Description: A large area cleared of stones, 60x18 m in size, with a trail leading up to it. It is a large site of the Lower Palaeolithic period, as shown by the finding of several bifacial flint implements of the Acheulean Industry. The site has also been utilised in later periods: there are barrows and piles of stones. Finds: Acheulean bifacial flint implements and Clactonian flints. Mousterian flints made by Levallois technique. Early Upper Palaeolithic flints. Flints and pottery of the BAC period. Periods MC: LP, MP, UP, BAC, SL. Site typology: Station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/120b

Coordinates: 125.6/967.9 Description: Palaeolithic site with 7 round hut floors in a circle surrounding a large flint workshop of approximately 1000 sqm. Finds: Flints of the Early Upper Palaeolithic Industry. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/120c

Coordinates: 125.7/967.8 Description: A group of 3 hut floors, the largest is oval-shaped and measures 4x3 m Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/120d

Coordinates: 125.7/968.0 Description: On the west of the site 120e, separated by a small hill, 6 round hut floors, 5 of them are aligned in a semicircle in E-W direction, the other being isolated to the south. Large flint workshop, with flint nodules and implements of the Middle Palaeolithic scattered over an area of the 200 sqm. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/120e

Coordinates: 125.6/968.0 Description: 4 large round hut floors. 2 have hearths inside. Geoglyphs: traces of alignments of stones which are today partly destroyed. It may have represented a large geoglyph. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, geoglyph, stone alignment.

HK/121

Coordinates: 123.6/966.2 Description: Small rock shelter with traces of a hearth and a partially destroyed closing wall. It opens at the same level as site HK/70 in a parallel valley. The caves are about 300 m from each other, and there is a knoll between them. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Cave, fireplace, rock shelter. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/122a

Coordinates: 123.4/968.4 Description: Remains of BAC settlement with about 15 structures, 1 of which is a "courtyard". At least 5 appear to be dwelling units. Stone circles and 3 tumuli. North, a boulder fallen from above is surrounded by piles of stones. Several stones have been intentionally placed on its top. 2 other similar ensembles are encountered at this same site: 2 boulders encircled by stones intentionally piled up against them. In a small valley behind the site there is another boulder, with a natural anthropomorphic shape. A stone circle has been built on the eastern side of the stone. Finds: Pottery and flint. Periods MC: UP, BAC, ISL. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, courtyard, living sites, stone circle, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/122b

Coordinates: 123.4/968.3 Description: Remains of BAC settlement, very similar to the adjacent site HK/122a, it may be the continuation of the same settlement. There is also a courtyard structure here, similar in shape and dimensions to the one at site HK/122a. Several minor structures and 3 tumuli. Finds: Pottery and flints. Several of the flints may be of an early BAC phase and 2 elongated flint blades are likely to be Neolithic. Periods MC: NEO, BAC. Rock Art: 1 stone with dark patina engravings on 2 sides. Two worshippers on one side. One of them seems to have a dagger at its belt. On the other side there is an unclear engraving of a scorpion and a schematic human figure having the same size. Periods RA: IV-A. Site typology: Courtyard, rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/122c

Coordinates: 123.5/968.3 Description: Remains of 2 rectangular stone structures and several heaps of stones on the hill which overlooks site HK/122a. It appears to be a temporary watch point, which may have been used only once for a specific purpose. A group of aligned slabs may indicate the presence of a tomb. Some 60 m to the east there are remains of an ancient fireplace about 2.50 m in diameter. Site typology: Fireplace, heaps of stones, living site, slab, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 306.

HK/123

Coordinates: 124.5/968.7 Description: Remains of 3 oval hut floors, the largest measuring 4x3 m. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/124

Coordinates: 124.6/968.7 Description: Flat sandy area cleared of stones with a low agricultural terracing wall, probably Islamic. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: V. Site typology: Rock art, terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/125

Coordinates: 124.8/968.7 Description: A series of natural rock shelters along the northern external flank of the mountain; several have low walls. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC MP, ISL. Site typology: Rock shelters. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/126a

Coordinates: 124.7/968.3 Finds: Flints BAC. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/126b

Coordinates: 124.7/968.4 Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks, including the so-called "Tablets of the Law". Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI. Finds: BAC Flint blade with retouched edges. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 6; EA96b, p. 39; EA97a, p. 112; SS90, p. 10.

HK/126c

Coordinates: 124.8/968.3 Description: Concentration of flints made by Levallois technique. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Station.

HK/127a

Coordinates: 124.8/968.1 Description: Remains of 8 hut floors, round-shaped, irregularly aligned in direction NW-SE over an area of ca. 100 m. The central hut is the largest and connected with another hut by a hearth and by a narrow path. Finds: Several well-made MP flints. Late Mousterian with a few blades. Some flints seem re- used, showing UP retouching. Also 2 micro-scrapers of the Early Upper Palaeolithic period were found. Periods MC: MP, UP. Rock Art: 9 engraved rocks, in an area measuring about m 60x30. Periods RA: V, VI. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/127b

Coordinates: 124.8/968.0 Description: Traces of a geoglyph between HK/127 and HK/27b. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Geoglyph.

HK/128

Coordinates: 126.1/967.9 Description: Stone circles and piles of stones, distinct traces of an encampment, in the crevice on the eastern side of the mountain. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stones, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/129

Coordinates: 126.2/967.8 Description: An enclosure made with stones, and remains of other structures, in the crevice on the eastern side of the mountain. Finds: Pottery (ISL). Periods MC: ISL. Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Courtyard, enclosure, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/130

Coordinates: 124.2/967.3 Rock Art: 20 engraved rocks with many superimpositions, including Thamudic inscriptions, several of which appear to be quite ancient. Patina shades indicate that there are different phases of inscriptions so-called Thamudic. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Inscriptions, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/131

Coordinates: 123.8/967.4 Description: Courtyard structure with a minor structure adjacent to it. In the immediate vicinity, UP flints. Finds: Pottery and flint (UP). Periods MC: BAC, UP. Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, V, VI. Site typology: Courtyard, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/132

Coordinates: 123.7/967.9 Description: Remains of 7 stone structures, 2 of which rather large, and 2 tumuli. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: 9 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Hamlet, rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/133

Coordinates: 124.1/966.0 Description: Remains of 4 round hut floors: the largest hut, in the middle, is about 4 m in diameter. 2 smaller areas cleared of stones. Finds: A large oval-shaped grinding stone broken in 2 parts. Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic and BAC period. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/134

Coordinates: 124.1/965.8 Description: Palaeolithic site in a saddle on the edge of plateau. On the slope, flint outcrops are evident, with at least 2 workshops. A path connects the flint outcrops with the remains of 5 hut floors. 2 are better preserved than the others. They may belong to different periods. Near the site, 3 small stone circles and 2 well-evident hearths. A round stone barrow near the site. Finds: Many thin blades of the early Upper Palaeolithic (Aurignacian) period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, flint workshops, stone circle, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/135a

Coordinates: 124.3/965.8 Description: Agricultural terracing at the bottom of the wadi. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/135b

Coordinates: 124.5/965.8 Description: Remains of 2 structures, a rectangular and a circular building, plus 5 Islamic tombs. The place was some sort of a temporary camp. Black stones found in and around the site are the remains of fireplaces. Remains of agricultural terracing on the wadi. About 200 m along the wadi, there is another Islamic tomb and further on remains of terracing. Periods MC: BYZ, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, fireplace, terrace, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307; EA95, p. 10.

HK/136a

Coordinates: 125.7/964.8 Description: Remains of 2 hut floors connected by a path. 1 hut is very large (14 m diam.). Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: Four engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, VI, VII. Site typology: Campsite, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/136b

Coordinates: 125.6/694.7 Description: A large station of the Lower Palaeolithic on an area cleared of stones (22 m x 11 m). A round, small hut floor 9 m south. Finds: Flint tools and flakes of Lower Palaeolithic. Some Middle Palaeolithic flints have also been found. Periods MC: LP, MP. Site typology: Campsite, station.

HK/137a

Coordinates: 125.8/964.4 Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks, along an ancient trail climbing up the mountain from the east. Periods RA: IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/137b

Coordinates: 125.5/964.5 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors in a row on the extreme south of the mountain. Periods MC: LP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/137c

Coordinates: 125.7/964.7 Description: Remains of 4 hut floors are aligned E-W in a row on the top of a hill. A flint workshop. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: LP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/137d

Coordinates: 125.6/964.6 Description: Remains of 2 round hut floors and 2 flint workshops. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic cores and flakes made by Levallois technique. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/138a

Coordinates: 125.8/964.2 Description: Traces of a path leading to the mountain plateau from the east. This difficult ascent can be followed from above for a distance of several hundred metres. 1 portion of the trail has an alignment of stones along it. Rock Art: 24 rocks with engravings on both sides of a trail leading onto the plateau. Periods RA: III, IVA, IVC, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/138b

Coordinates: 125.8/964.3 Description: Remains of 5 Palaeolithic hut floors. Periods MC: PAL (probably MP). Site typology: Campsite.

HK/138c

Coordinates: 125.9/964.1 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IVA, V, VII. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/138d

Coordinates: 125.9/964.6 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Three engraved rocks. Periods RA: IVC, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/139

Coordinates: 125.5/964.1 Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: Mostly VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/139b

Coordinates: 126.0/964.4 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Five engraved rocks, the pictures represent, among other subjects, an ibex in naturalistic style, camels, a scene with a horseman and an ibex. Periods RA: III, IVA, IVC, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/140

Coordinates: 125.3/964.0 Sight typology: Rock art. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, V, VI. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/141

Coordinates: 125.2/964.1 Description: Group of several heaps of stones. Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Heaps of stones, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 307.

HK/142

Coordinates: 125.0/964.1 Description: A stone circle and a few heaps of stones measuring approximately 50cm in diameter; probably a burial ground. Site typology: Heap of stones. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/143

Coordinates: 124.8/964.6 Description: 2 semicircles built of stone and other remains of structures likely to represent a seasonal, pastoral camp. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Rock Art: Rock engravings on 1 of the stones used in the structure. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Encampment, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/144a

Coordinates: 124.8/965.8 Description: Remains of 5 oval-shaped hut floors arranged in a circle. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic (probably only 1 phase with flints including a blade with Levallois and flake techniques) and Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/144b

Coordinates: 124.8/965.8 Description: Site with 4 hut floors and a stone circle (hearth?), 45 m from the site 144. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic (probably only 1 phase with flints including a blade with Levallois and flake techniques) and Upper Palaeolithic periods. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace.

HK/145a

Coordinates: 124.4/966.1 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors. The largest, in the middle, is oval shaped; 2 smaller areas cleared of stones. Finds: Flints, Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/145b

Coordinates: 124.4/966.1 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors. The largest is oval-shaped. A hearth and 2 anthropomorphic- shaped stones face each other. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic, Neolithic and BAC periods. Periods MC: MP, NEO, BAC. Site typology: Anthropomophoric stones, campsite, fireplace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/145c

Coordinates: 124.4/966.0 Description: Remains of 3 round, small hut floors. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/145d

Coordinates: 124.4/966.1 Description: A small collection of stones with fossils in a heap. Site typology: Station.

HK/146a

Coordinates: 125.8/966.2 Description: Remains of 6 round hut floors aligned in a row in a NE-SW direction. The 2 in the centre are larger than the others and measure 5.4 m and 6.5 m in diameter respectively. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/146b

Coordinates: 125.7/966.3 Description: An orthostat (70 x 25 cm). Another fallen orthostat in the immediate vicinity. Site typology: Orthostats.

HK/146c

Coordinates: 125.8/966.0 Description: Remains of 1 round hut floor (2.8 m). There is a hearth at 11 m. A little orthostat in the middle, surrounded and held in place by flint nodules. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period (Karkomian?), out of which 2 percuseurs (spheroid hammering tools). Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, orthostat.

HK/146d

Coordinates: 125.7/966.0 Finds: Upper Palaeolithic flint implements. Site typology: Station. Periods MC: UP.

HK/147

Coordinates: 126.0/966.4 Description: A group of 7 round hut floors, 3 of them are larger than the others (4.5 m) and 2 smaller areas are cleared of stones. 3 paths cross the site. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic and BAC periods. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/148a

Coordinates: 126.2/966.3 Description: Remains of 8 oval hut floors. 4 of them are aligned in a row in a NW-SE direction with a path running along them. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/148b

Coordinates: 126.2/966.5 Description: In the south of site 86b a large round hut floor (9 m diameter). Finds: "Aterian" notched points and late Middle Palaeolithic flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/149a

Coordinates: 126.1/966.6 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors aligned in a row. Inside 1 of them was a collection of stones. Finds: Flints of Lower and Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308; EA93a, p. 81.

HK/149b

Coordinates: 125.9/966.6 Description: A circular area cleared of stones near the site HK/149a appears to be the remains of a hut floor. Finds: Flints of Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/149c

Coordinates: 126.1/966.7 Description: Remains of 3 oval hut floors. There are small stone circles near the huts. Remains of an altar with stone alignment. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Site typology: Campsite, shrine, stone alignment.

HK/150

Coordinates: 121.2/965.8 Description: 3 tumuli in proximity of recently piled stones. Periods MC: BAC?, ISL. Site typology: Tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/151

Coordinates: 121.3/965.7 Description: Stone structures and 5 circularised heaps of stones . Finds: BAC flints and 1 piece of RBY pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Heaps of stone, plaza. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308; EA87, p. 33. HK /152Coordinates: 121.2/965.7 Description: A series of 12 stone structures, 10 of which form a plaza circle measuring about 33 m in diameter. The other 2 are inside the circle. Excavations: Sounding of silos, structure no. 11: the earth inside is more brown-grey than at the surface. At the depth of 45cm a layer of limestone was found. It became clear that a silo was dug into the soil and subsequently filled in (soil sample with unworked flints and charcoal); 70cm deep the soil changes: the kind of soil used for the filling was sandy, grey and mixed with small grey particles (charcoal?); and clumps of limestone (natural soil). This filling indicates that in the BAC period, there was a lot of organic material and natural unworked flints at the surface. 75-80 cm, on the eastern side of the hole carbonised pieces of wood were discovered. The section establishes that the hole was some sort of a dug-in silo. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: Periods RA: Site typology: Plaza. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308; EA87 p. 33; EA93. pp. 45 & 46; EA88a, p. 115.

HK/153a

Coordinates: 122.6/964.0 Description: Remains of a settlement on both sides of the wadi. A large stone enclosure adjacent to a stone circle flanked by 4 smaller circles. An engraved stone in a stone circle. Numerous structures on the south terrace of the wadi. Several are tumuli and at least 4 are dwelling units. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Courtyard, living site, stone circle, tumuli, other. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/153b

Coordinates: 122.6/963.9 Description: Enclosure with structures surrounding it at the confluence of 2 wadis. 3 stone structures. 3 successive natural steps on the rocks have been artificially reinforced by stones and used as agricultural terraces. 30 m east, 5 standing stones arranged in a semicircle. Further up on the hill, 8 standing stones forming an oval arrangement. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Courtyard, enclosure, terrace.

HK/153c

Coordinates: 122.9/964.0 Description: Remains of nomadic encampment. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/153d

Coordinates: 122.6/963.8 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment and funerary area with small tumuli. Finds: BAC flint, RBY & ISL pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, tumuli.

HK/154a

Coordinates: 123.7/964.1 Description: 2 large stone circles and the remains of other structures were found on the terrace of a small wadi. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Row, stone circles, terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/154b

Coordinates: 123.9/964.2 Description: Remains of a courtyard structure (BAC) in proximity of 3 smaller structures. A large area cleared of stones may have been used for agricultural purposes. The courtyard structure has a general rectangular shape with 4 rooms creating 4 angles. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Courtyard. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 38.

HK/154c

Coordinates: 123.8/964.1 Description: Remains of 3 circular dwelling units and 2 large enclosures are located on a terrace at the edge of the wadi. Site typology: Row, terrace.

HK/155

Coordinates: 121.7/963.5 Description: A pile of stones and 2 hut floors. Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, VI. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stones, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/156

Coordinates: 121.3/964.1 Description: 12 piles of stone arranged in a large circle, forming a plaza site. 3 of the structures are large enough to be considered dwelling units. Finds: Flint tools; native stone containing iron. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Plaza. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308; EA87 pp. 21, 33 & 54/55.

HK/157

Coordinates: 121.7/964.9 Finds: A long bone, partially fossilised, with cut marks probably made with a flint implement. The bone has been identified as donkey or ass by Dr. E. Tchernov of the Hebrew University. Site typology: Other. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/158

Coordinates: 122.2-3/964.8 Description: 5 stone circles, 1 of which with courtyard that could be a hut floor. Probably a plaza site. Nearby are elongated walls and heaps of stones. Finds: Flints. Numerous atypical flakes. Periods MC: UP, BAC, ISL. Rock Art: In the heaps of stones, 1 engraved stone. Periods RA: V-VI. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stone, plaza, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/159a

Coordinates: 122.7/967.6 Description: Group of 4 tumuli on the top of a hill. Site typology: Tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 308.

HK/ 159b

Coordinates: 122.7/967.7 Description: On the top of a hill overlooking site HK/317, 2 oval hut floors bearing flints. Finds: Retouched flints (UP) that have been fractured due to use. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/160

Coordinates: 124.1/968.9 Description: 4 rectangular structures on the western terrace of the wadi and 5 smaller stone circles toward the wadi. 60 m north, there is another rectangular structure. Finds: Pottery and flint. 1 "chopper" perhaps not Palaeolithic. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Row, terrace.

HK/161

Coordinates: 124.1/969.1 Description: Remains of 6 rectangular and oval stone structures on both sides of a small wadi, along with a stone enclosure. A small dolmen-like structure with 2 vertical stones. A tumulus on the overlooking hill. Finds: Numerous BAC flints, and sporadic pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Hamlet, tumulus.

HK/162

Coordinates: 124.6/969.1 Description: A stone circle with a trail leading north. A row of stones adjacent to that circle. A large tumulus and several heaps of stones. Site typology: Heaps of stone, stone circle, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/163

Coordinates: 124.6/969.5 Description: Remains of low walls and piles of stones approximately 60 m along the wadi. Site typology: Heaps of stone. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/164

Coordinates: 124.7/969.4 Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/165

Coordinates: 124.8/969.6 Description: Remains of 4 rectangular structures and several piles of stones are in close proximity to a Bedouin encampment. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stone, row. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/166

Coordinates: 124.8/969.7 Description: Bedouin encampment. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: ISL. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Encampment, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/167

Coordinates: 124.7/969.6 Description: A stone circle and several heaps of stones. Site typology: Heaps of stones, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/168

Coordinates: 124.6/969.7 Description: 2 tumuli, 2 stone circles and 2 enclosures. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Enclosures, stone circle, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/169

Coordinates: 124.7/969.8 Description: Remains of tumuli and other stone structures. Remains of agricultural terracing in a lateral wadi. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Terrace, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/170

Coordinates: 124.5/969.8 Description: Remains of stone structures. Tumulus measuring 1.5 m in diameter, and next to it an orthostat. Stone circle, 1.2 m in diameter. West of the site is an alignment of 11-12 small stele oriented northwest-eastwest towards Har Karkom. Finds: Abundant BAC flints and a quartz crystal. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: A rock engraved with 2 snakes. Periods RA: IV-A. Site typology: Orthostat, rock art, stone circle, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 309.

HK/180

Coordinates: 125.6/969.9 Description: 3 stone circles and several tumuli. Terracing in a shallow wadi may be much older than the terraces in the vicinity. Finds: Flints. An arrow head and a large fan scraper, on a primary flake. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: 2 rocks engraved with geometric motifs whose dark patina indicates their age. Periods RA: IVC, VI?. Site typology: Encampment, rock art, stone circle, terrace, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/181

Coordinates: 125.8/969.8 Description: Agricultural terracing on a flat ground next to the wadi and a stone-built canal functioning in the collection of water. Remains of 4 rectangular and circular structures on bank of the wadi made with large boulders. 2 phases of construction can be distinguished. 2 tumuli to the south. Period MC; RBY, ISL. Site typology: Canal, living sites-other, terrace, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/188

Coordinates: 126.4/969.7 Description: Remains of an encampment with 4 stone structures and 2 stone enclosures. Period MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment, enclosures. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/189

Coordinates: 125.8/969.4 Description: Remains of 5 large stone structures on the eastern bank of the wadi, probably a dwelling site (RBY). 1 of the structures is smaller than the others and its architecture is different indicating that it may belong to another period. Finds: Pottery and flints. Periods MC: MP, RBY. Site typology: Row. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/190a

Coordinates: 125.6/968.9 Description: At the northern extremity of the plateau is a large Middle Palaeolithic site with Mousterian bifacial implements of Acheulean tradition, located on an area of about 200 sqm 6 hut floors around a hill. Finds: Several well-made Mousterian flints of the Levallois technique. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/190b

Coordinates: 125.7/968.9 Description: A large oval-shaped hut floor (16 x 5 m) and a small round hut floor on E. Finds: Flints. Site typology: Campsite. Periods MC: MP.

HK/190c

Coordinates: 125.7/968.7 Description: A geoglyph made of white stones on the hamada black ground. It is 8x3 m in size. It has 2 stone slabs as a "head" and 2 small standing stones as "feet". On the "body" there seems to be a representation of a vaguely anthropomorphic shape with 2 lateral lines of stones as "arms" and a stone having the natural shape of an animal head. A flint boulder, a flint perforated object and two flint-perforated objects were at its feet. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, geoglyph, orthostat.

HK/191a

Coordinates: 125.35/968.74 Description: Remains of 7 round hut floors of placed in a fan shape. Finds: Flints of the early Early Upper Palaeolithic (Karkomian) period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/191b

Coordinates: 125.2/968.6 Description: Remains of 3 Palaeolithic hut floors, 1 is very large (about 9x6 m) with a hearth on its side. A path reaches the hut from the opposite side. A cluster of standing stones on west. Finds: Flints of the Mousterian period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, orthostat. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 48.

HK/191c

Coordinates: 125.3/968.6 Description: Remains of 3 small round Palaeolithic hut floors are aligned in a row in N-S direction. Finds: Flints of the Mousterian period. Site typology: Campsite. Periods MC: MP.

HK/192

Coordinates: 125.7/968.3 Description: Remains of 3 small Palaeolithic hut floors. A large heap of stones seems rather of geologic origin. In the vicinity, a large BAC scraper (ritual?). Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Some of them show traces of BAC retouching. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/193a

Coordinates: 125.8/968.3 Description: 6 Palaeolithic hut floors. 2 of them are connected in a figure of eight. 14 m west a double stone alignment appears as a little stone semicircle, with a stone in the centre. Beyond the semicircle, a 7th hut floor. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, stone alignment, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/193b

Coordinates: 125.7/968.3 Description: In the vicinity of site HK/193 a series of white spots, probably remains of geoglyph. Site typology: Geoglyph.

HK/194

Coordinates: 125.6/968.2 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors. Of them, 1 is oval-shaped (m 8x3.5 in size), the other 2 are round and smaller. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. In the vicinity, a very large BAC scraper. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/195

Coordinates: 125.2/967.7 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors are aligned in a row from NW-SE, a path connects 2 of them. Inside the third hut, a stone small circle may be the location a hearth. Finds: Atypical flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks, 1 of them may have been an engraved orthostat now fallen in a small stone circle. Periods RA: IV-C, VI, VII. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, orthostat, rock art, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/196

Coordinates: 125.6/967.7 Description: Upper Palaeolithic site, with 4 hut floors and a large flint workshop. Finds: Numerous Early Upper Palaeolithic flint flakes and implements. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/197a

Coordinates: 125.4/967.6 Description: 4 round hut floors, the largest measures 4.5 m. Three smaller areas cleared of stones are most likely the remains of flint workshops. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 310.

HK/197b

Coordinates: 125.4/967.5 Description: To the south of the site 197a, 6 hut floors are aligned in N-S direction. The central hut is oval and measures 4x2.5 m, the others are round and smaller. Finds: An Acheulean hand axe and Upper Palaeolithic flints. Site typology: Campsite. Periods MC: LP, UP.

HK/197c

Coordinates: 125.3/967.5 Description: To the west of the site 197a, 7 irregularly shaped hut floors aligned in a W-E direction. Finds: Flint flakes of LP and MP with later retouching. Periods MC: LP, MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/197d

Coordinates: 125.4/967.4 Description: Remains of 2 hut floors. Finds: Micoquian bifacial tools, late lower Palaeolithic. Periods MC: LP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/198

Coordinates: 125.9/967.4 Description: Remains of 2 Palaeolithic hut floors. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: LP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/199a

Coordinates: 126.0/967.3 Description: Remains of 7 round-oval hut floors arranged in an irregular N-S alignment. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. 2 Acheulean hand-axes were found near the site. Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/199b

Coordinates: 126.0/967.3 Description: North of 199a, a group of 3 small hut floors. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period, Levallois technique. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.
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Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).


Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links


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