Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
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Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

At the beginning the majority of researchers were against the proposed identification


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Mount Sinai has been found.
 



HAR KARKOM SITES 200-299

HK/200

Coordinates: 126.1/967.3 Description: Remains of 5 round hut floors and 2 smaller areas cleared of stones. Two huts are connected by a path. Finds: Flints of the Lower Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic periods. Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/201a

Coordinates: 126.4/967.5 Description: Remains of 5 round hut floors. Finds: MP flint, out of which an Aterian pedunculated scraper. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/201b

Coordinates: 126.3/967.4 Description: Remains of 4 hut floors 100 m west of site HK/201a. 2 of the huts are close to forming a figure of eight. Finds: Abundant Lower Palaeolithic bifacials and other tools. Some Middle Palaeolithic flints may be present as well. Periods MC: LP, MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA97b, p. 20.

HK/201c

Coordinates: 126.3/967.4 Description: Remains of a large flint workshop some 20 m west of site 201b. The site includes heaps of stones and 3 arrangements of stones in circles. Finds: Many Upper Palaeolithic blades and cores. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Flint workshop, heaps of stone. Bibliography: EA97b, p. 20

HK/202a

Coordinates: 126.5/967.4 Description: Remains of 4 round hut floors, one of which is very large. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/202b

Coordinates: 126.5/967.4 Description: Remains of 7 hut floors and 2 smaller areas cleared of stones near the ravine border. Finds: Several flints from Lower Palaeolithic (out of them a spheroid), Middle Palaeolithic Period, Upper Palaeolithic and BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/203a

Coordinates: 126.4/967.2 Description: A group of 7 hut floors, 4 of which are aligned N-S. The central hut is the largest and has an oval irregular shape (9x7 m in size) with an appendix to the east. The other huts are round and smaller in diameter (3-5 m). A fireplace in between the 2 huts on Southern. Traces of pebble drawings or geoglyphs made of heavily patinated flint pebbles likely to have remained in situ for a very long time. Finds: Abundant Early Upper Palaeolothic (Karkomian) flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, geoglyph.

HK/204

Coordinates: 126.3/967.2 Description: A Palaeolithic campsite settled in 2 different periods. Of 3 hut floors, 1 is very large (m 14 x 9) and irregular in shape, and is most likely the remains of the older (late Lower Palaeolithic) settlement. 2 round hut floors to the north and to the south, 2 more smaller in size (5 m in diameter) were probably added during the Early Middle Palaeolithic. Finds: LP flints, among them an Acheulean hand-axe and a Micoquian bifacial, Mousterian bifacials of Acheulean tradition. Periods MC: LP, MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/205

Coordinates: 126.4/967.0 Description: A group of 7 round hut floors; 3 stone structures, 1 is probably a platform; the other 2 are heaps of stone. Finds: Flints of the Lower Palaeolithic and Early Upper Palaeolithic periods with a body-like shape. A flint pebble is flaked, probably to enhance its shape. Periods MC: LP, UP, BAC?. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stone, platform, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/206a

Coordinates: 126.0/967.0 Description: A group of 6 Palaeolithic hut floors in a circle. They are irregularly shaped, 1 is much larger than the others. Finds: Abundant Early Upper Palaeolothic (Karkomian?) flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/206b

Coordinates: 126.1/966.9 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors and 2 other smaller areas cleared of stones. They are placed in a semi-circle around the top of a hill. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flints. Some of them were later retouched with a secondary light patina. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/207

Coordinates: 125.8/967.0 Description: Remains of 6 hut floors are aligned in a NW-SE direction. The hut in the middle is much larger than the others and is irregular in shape. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic periods. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/208

Coordinates: 125.8/967.1 Description: Remains of 3 round hut floors aligned in a row. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/209

Coordinates: 125.7/967.2 Description: Remains of 4 hut floors of which 1 is very large. A flint workshop for the production of blades. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/210

Coordinates: 126.4/966.8 Description: Remains of 3 round hut floors. There are "anthropo-zoomorphic" stones on the perimeter of a hut and 1 on its floor. Between the other 2 huts is a small circle of "anthropo-zoomorphic" stones with 1 round, mask-shaped in the centre. Finds: Flints of the Early Upper Palaeolithic period (Karkomian?). 53 "zoomorphic" stones have been collected. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, campsite, Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/211a

Coordinates: 125.2/966.9 Description: Remains of 7 Palaeolithic hut floors. A tumulus, probably a BAC burial, to the North. A double alignment of stones, similar to those of sites 114c and 193, faces west at a stone semicircle with a stone in the middle. Periods MC: LP, MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, stone alignment, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/211b

Coordinates: 125.2/966.8 Description: A flint workshop on a terrace upon site HK/211a. A path in an E-W direction crosses it. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Flint workshop.

HK/211c

Coordinates: 125.2/966.7 Description: Remains of 1 hut floor and a flint workshop on a small terrace under the top of the mountain. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/211d

Coordinates: 125.1/966.8 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors on a terrace below the top of a hill. A circle of stones inside a hut. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/212a

Coordinates: 124.7/966.8 Description: Remains of 3 Palaeolithic hut floors. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/212b

Coordinates: 124.5/966.7 Description: On a terrace west of the top of the mountain, 2 heaps of stones and some areas cleared of stone. Site typology: Heaps of stones.

HK/212c

Coordinates: 124.7/967.0 Description: Stone alignment, probably an anthropomorphic geoglyph, in the centre of a large area carefully cleared of stones. Another large area in the vicinity is cleared of stones. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Geoglyph, station.

HK/212d

Coordinates: 124.7/966.9 Description: Private shrine likely to have been used twice. Several stones were added at a later time to a first core of standing orthostats. Some of the stones were oblique and were redressed. Site typology: Orthostats, shrine.

HK/212e

Coordinates: 124.3/966.9 Description: Remains of 4 round hut floors and a smaller area cleared of stones. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/213

Coordinates: 124.3/966.7 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing in the bed of the wadi and 3 oval bases of stone structures which were probably temporary dwellings of nomads of the RBY period. Periods MC: RBY?. Site typology: Encampment, terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/214

Coordinates: 124.1/967.0 Description: A group of 5 Palaeolithic hut floors (m 1.5-3.4 in size) on the peak of a spur of the mountain surrounded on 3 sides by precipices. 4 huts are attached to each other by the side of the central hut, an area cleared of stones and surrounded by 8 flint nodules is likely to be the remains of a hearth. On the east, 3 flint workshops. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshops, fireplace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311; EA 93, p. 58.

HK/215

Coordinates: 124.1/966.6 Description: Remains of low, stone walls by the side of the bed of a small wadi, for a canal presumably for collecting water. Periods MC: RBY?. Site typology: Canal. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311; EA97b, p. 21.

HK/216a

Coordinates: 122.0/962.0 Description: A group of 7 piles of stones, probably tumuli. 60 m east, another similar isolated pile. Periods MC: ISL?. Site typology: Heaps of stone, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/216b

Coordinates: 122.0/961.9 Description: Below HK/216a are 3 main structures on the northwestern bank of the wadi, 10m in length, together with a few minor structures. Oval platforms with rows of stones. There are slopes on the upper part of the site which looks SW and there are three strange stones. One is a large, black stone with zoomorphic features; the middle one has two concentric circles on its surface; and the third has a vaguely anthropomorphic shape. On the eastern side there is a platform shape of an irregular rectangle, with black stones marking out each of its corners. To the south, there is a third structure which is an oblique platform with stones intentionally arranged in a row. In a previous survey this was considered to be a living site. However, reexamination seems to point out that the site may have had a ritual role rather than a habitation one. In a small, protected valley 60m to the south, there are several heaps of stones, which are likely to be burials. Behind a shallow hill, there is a small oval shape of 10x11m, made by 12 main flint stones and several smaller ones. Finds: scraper. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: platforms, tumuli (?).

HK/217

Coordinates: 121.0/960.6 Description: Circle of at least 9 structures, probably a plaza, and additional scattered structures. There are remains of agricultural terracing and vestiges of reutilisation throughout different periods. On the northern side remains of a geoglyph. Periods MC: RBY, BAC. Site typology: Geoglyph, terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/218

Coordinates: 123.9/960.5 Description: Remains of 3 stone structures, probably an encampment, and 1 tumulus along the side of the mountain. Finds: Flints (BAC) and pottery (ISL). Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/219

Coordinates: 126.8/964.8 Description: Remains of an enclosure. Natural rocks forming a semicircle appear to have had stones added to them by man. Nearby are remains of at least 8 hut floors. Site typology: Campsite, enclosure. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/220a

Coordinates: 127.2/966.4 Description: Remains of 5 oval structures and 2 large enclosures of stone, along a trail leading to the plateau. Periods MC: ISL?. Site typology: Campsite, enclosure. Bibliography: EA86, p. 312; EA93a, p. 56; EA96c, p. 19.

HK/220b

Coordinates: 127,580 / 966,400 Description: One engraved rock. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-A, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/220c

Coordinates: 127,640 / 966,500 Description: One engraved rock: a caravan with camels, ibexes and a Nabatean inscription. Two other rocks with more recent engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Three engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/220d

Coordinates: 127,530 / 966,940 Description: Two engraved rocks. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/221a

Coordinates: 122.5/969.8 Description: Enclosure built of stone, with 2 dwelling units and 2 tumuli beside it. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Encampment, enclosure, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/221b

Coordinates: 122.6/969.7 Description: Slightly inclined plateau, averaging 10 m wide and 200 m in length. On the higher end, there are 2 natural pits and 15 m from there, an east-west oriented rectangular structure likely to be a "Hellenistic" sanctuary. Pottery; possibly also sherds of the Persian period pieces of a large amphora. The plateau is protected by a stone wall whose passageway boasts built jambs. Below the opening, among large boulders, there is a steep man-made ramp. Just past it, there seems to have been the original entrance to the plateau. On the sloping surface of the plateau lies a group of 7 pillars and an altar-like stone. The tallest pillar has a (natural?) anthropomorphic-shaped face with human retouched eyes and mouth. There are some atypical flints, (probably BAC) and also Hellenistic and RBY pottery. On the east side, just under the rectangular structure, at the foot of a 10 m precipice, there is a natural shelter with Hellenistic pottery. On the east side of the natural shelter, there is a square stone structure. The dimensions of the shelter are 3 m x 1.5 m. The interior measures 1 m x 1 m. There are several other shelters, the 2 largest are situated to the east and to the west. An adjacent smaller shelter might have been used as a storeroom and its entrance has remains of a closing wall. There is a third, smaller shelter on the east side, which boasts the same pottery as elsewhere on the site. Har Karkom can be seen at a distance of about 3km. The site was excavated. Finds: Pottery; Flint. Periods MC: BAC?, Persian ?, HEL, RBY. Site typology: Anthropomorphic rock, orthostat, rock shelter, shrine. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 57; VM95, BCSP, vol. 28, pp. 106-114; EA95, p.15.

HK/222

Coordinates: 123.1/968.5 Description: Remains of an encampment with stone structures and enclosure for livestock (Bedouin?) take up a wide area on both sides of the wadi. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment, enclosure. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/223

Coordinates: 123.0/969.1 Description: Remains of 6 agricultural terraces, at the confluence of 2 wadis. Periods MC: UP, RBY. Site typology: Terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/224

Coordinates: 123.0/969.7 Description: Remains of a Bedouin encampment. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311; EA95, p. 10.

HK/225

Coordinates: 122.1/969.0 Description: Agricultural terracing extends for about 500 m along the wadi bed. The walls reveal recent reconstruction; presumably they were reused by Bedouins, the largest terrace measures 60 x 25 m. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/226

Coordinates: 122.4/968.8 Description: Large stone circle. Site typology: Stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/227

Coordinates: 122.0/968.5 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing in the wadi bed. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/228a-b

Coordinates: 121.4/968.3 Description: Impressive agricultural terraces along a wadi that extend east- west for about 1km. Periods MC: UP, BAC, ISL. Site typology: Terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/228c

Coordinates: 121.7/968.3 Description: Remains of a village with 4 large aligned enclosures and other minor structures. Nearby there are groups of 13-14 small piles of stones (the village cemetery?). Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: I?, VI. Site typology: Enclosure, row. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/229a

Coordinates: 121.7/969.9 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing near a wadi, with small walls having a canal that may have been used to collect water. A small site but exploited many times. Finds: BAC flints, RBY pottery and fragment of basalt stone bowl, probably Roman. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Canal, terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/229b

Coordinates: 121.8/969.9 Description: Remains of a BAC courtyard structure surrounded by 6 heaps of stones. On the top of a small hill to the north, a tumulus and remains of a small straight wall. Below the hill, to the south, are traces of an encampment. Finds: Fragments of grindstone. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Courtyard, encampment, heaps of stones, tumulus.

HK/230

Coordinates: 121.1/961.2 Description: A stone-built enclosure with traces of secondary remaking. Next to the structure is a pile of stones. 60 m east are remains of a nomadic encampment. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, enclosure, heaps of stone. Bibliography: EA86, p. 311.

HK/231

Coordinates: 121.8/963.1 Description: A small complex of circular walls indicates a dwelling unit of short duration. Traces of pebble drawings (or geoglyphs). Site typology: Geoglyphs.

HK/232

Coordinates: 127.1/962.6 Description: A large circle, with a diameter of about 50 m, made of 12-13 stone structures, out of which 4 or 5 may have been used for habitation purposes. 6 more structures form a smaller circle in the centre (it is not necessarily of the same age as the other structures). In the same area there are remains of a Bedouin encampment. Nearby a cluster of rocks with engravings. 1 of them has a flat top with traces of fire. Finds: LP bifacial tools and flakes. BAC flints: 6 rounded pebbles, probably a game. Periods MC: LP, BAC. Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks, 1 in the circle and 5 north of it. 1 medieval Arabic inscription. Some rocks have flat top with traces of fire. One isolated, engraved rock has fire cracks on the top. These fires have whitened the usually dark patina of the surface. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI-VII. Site typology: Encampment, enclosure, inscription, plaza, rock art, stone circle. Bibliography: EA87, p. 62.

HK/233a

Coordinates: 127.4/963.3 Description: Transitory station at the foot of Har Karkom, along a path to the mountain. 5 circular structures and other remains of encampment. In 1 of the structures a spherical stone is covered with worn engravings produced with the polishing technique. Rock shelters with walls blackened by soot indicate fires were made in them repeatedly. Finds: Pottery and flint. Periods MC: LP, BAC, RBY. Rock Art: Over 40 engraved rocks; the style is very distinctive and is similar to that of Nahal Odem. Periods RA: II-B, VI-VII. Site typology: Encampment, rock art, rock shelters, station. Bibliography: EA93b, p.30.

HK/233b

Coordinates: 127.2/963.3 Description: West of site HK/233 are 5 engraved rocks. Periods RA: II-B, III, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/233c

Coordinates: 127.3/963.4 Description: On the slope of the mountain is a tumulus with an "anthropomorphic" stone nearby. Rock Art: 10 engraved rocks. Periods RA: II-B, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, rock art, tumulus.

HK/233d

Coordinates: 127.1/963.4 Description: Traces of geoglyphs, alignments of stones for more than 50 m, 3 engraved rocks and 2 heaps of stones. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Geoglyphs, rock art, stone alignments.

HK/234

Coordinates: 127.6/965.2 Description: 4 stone structures and several heaps of stones arranged in a circle, diameter about 47 m. On the northern side there is a group of tumuli, probably a grave yard. On the east a "private shrine" with a standing orthostat and a semi-circular heap of stone. Finds: Include Chalcolithic adze and several fan scrapers. Periods MC: MP, BAC Rock Art: More than 20 engraved rocks. Periods RA: II?, IV-A, IV-C, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Heaps of stone, orthostat, plaza, rock art, shrine. Bibliography: EA87, pp. 21 & 94; EA93a, p. 30.

HK/234b

Coordinates: 127,300 / 965,100 Description: Five engraved rocks. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Five engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/234c

Coordinates: 127,340 / 965,260 Description: Three engraved rocks: on one, there is a scene with two quadrupeds (an ibex and a fox?) with a very old patina. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Three engraved rocks. Periods RA: III, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/234d

Coordinates: 127,140 / 965,360 Description: One engraved rock. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/234e

Coordinates: 127,320 / 965,660 Description: Four tumuli and a stone alignment, in direction north-south. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock with a nice herding scene of style III: an ibex, a gazelle and two smaller quadrupeds (dogs?). Other pictures have been added in later periods: a hunter with bow and arrow and a man with a camel. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/234f

Coordinates: 127,380 / 965,600 Description: Four engraved rocks, one with two horsemen, and another one with three solar symbols associated with a Thamudic inscription. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Four engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, V, VII. Site typology: Inscription, rock art.

HK/235a

Coordinates: 128.7/969.4 Description: A large circle of structures, of which only 4 are well preserved. There were probably 7 structures. An alignment of large stones southeast of the circle; they are orientated east- west. A row of 4 tumuli near the wadi. An area full of white spots that mark the location of holes probably relics of a plantation. Site typology: Plaza, stone alignment.

HK/235b

Coordinates: 128.6/969.2 Description: Several heaps of stones, probably tombs. Site typology: Heaps of stone, tumuli?.

HK/235c

Coordinates: 128.4/969.4 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment with 3 oval structures. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/238

Coordinates: 120.1/968.6 Description: A tumulus at the top of the hill, dominating an important part of the trail. In the middle of the tumulus there is a standing orthostat. Further down, and northeast are 2 piles of stones, probably Bedouin tombs. Site typology: Orthostat, tumulus.

HK/239

Coordinates: 123.4/969.6 Description: 2 piles of stones and remains of other minor structures indicate the presence of an encampment. Finds: Worked flint tools on an area of about 60x80 m. Periods MC: Probably archaic and atypical Chalcolithic. BAC with many retouched blades and few characteristic tools; the cores are of BAC type. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/240

Coordinates: 123.9/969.8 Description: A tumulus at the top of a small hill. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Tumulus.

HK/241

Coordinates: 121.8/969.6 Description: Series of 6 structures forming a circle with another round structure at the centre and 8 additional adjacent structures. The diameter of the circle is about 40 m. Finds: Abundant BAC flints of excellent quality. Many fan scrapers mostly concentrated in 1 spot. Site very rich in BAC tools. A group of several cores near the circle northward, may also have been collected there in the BAC period; this situation is very unusual. Certain styles are concentrated in restricted areas near specific structures. A group of bifacial tools of the Lower Palaeolithic 30-40 m southwest of the large circle. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Plaza. Bibliography: EA87, p. 97; EA88a, p. 115.

HK/242

Coordinates: 122.3/969.5 Description: Large tumulus with a rectangular cyst covered with large slabs of tabular flint. On top of the tumulus, several stones were located having naturally shaped (?) anthropomorphic faces. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, slab, tumulus.

HK/243a-c

Coordinates: 122.7/967.3 Description: A: 2 large shelters, 1 facing north, the other facing south of the promontory. Both have stone closing walls. 1 of the shelters is partially formed using large slabs of collapsed rock. B: Several rock shelters with small built-walls and other vestiges of utilisation. Some cavities have been used recently and there are vestiges of overnight stays by Bedouins: A water bottle, some leather straps, shreds from a tunic, camel and goat droppings. West, 2 larger cavities show recent remains of hearths. Halfway up, a rock shelter has 2 built structures inside it, with a square gate. They are used by Bedouins as storerooms and were probably recently built. C: Higher up a funerary tumulus. Finds: Abundant flints; Islam and Byzantine pottery; an iron sickle (ISL). Sediment. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Rock Art: 50 m east, 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: VI-VII. Site typology: Rock art, rock shelter, slab, tumulus.

HK/243d

Coordinates: 122.9/967.3 Description: 2 dwelling units with recent rebuilding on the terrace of a small lateral wadi. To the southwest, on another terrace further up in the wadi there are at least 3 stone tumuli. Finds: BAC flints. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Tumuli.

HK/243e

Coordinates: 122.9/967.2 Description: Remains of a camping site. Finds: Islamic Pottery. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/244

Coordinates: 124.0/965.3 Description: A natural cave on the slope of the mountain, facing south toward the Paran desert. It has 2 narrow entrances and is at least 70 m deep. It has been cleared. The sediments are made of 2 elements: rock fallings from the cave walls and ceiling, and a powder- like material like loess, which is likely to have been brought by the wind. The number of fallen stones indicates that the ceiling is unstable or was so in the past. Finds: A few worked fossil bones (probably UP). UP and BAC flints, a fan scraper, 2 retouched blades and a flint piercer. Several fragments of BAC pottery: Late BAC fragments of a "metallic ware" jar (EBIV-MBI). Many bones from birds and small animals coming from the deep hole in the kitchen. Worked bones. 2 stone lids, diam. 18 and 14 cm. Fragments of worked quartz. Fragment of leather sandal. 1 piece of fossilised wood; piece of ostrich eggshell (to laboratory for 14C). stalagmites; worked stones. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Cave. Bibliography: EA95, pp. 10 & 12.

HK/245a-b

Coordinates: 121.3/969.7 Description: 2 large circles each one formed by about 10 small piles of stones on a broad slope of the hamada, which has a view of Har Karkom, 3.5km distant. Different kinds of stones were chosen for the circles. 1 is formed mostly of white stones, the other of dark stones. Periods MC: MP, NEO?, BAC. Site typology: Plaza. Bibliography: EA87, p. 109.

HK/245c

Coordinates: 121.3/969.8 Finds: About 50 m northeast of site HK/245, a large quantity of BAC flints with flakes and other working debris. It is likely to have been a flint workshop. This site is probably in connection with site HK/245a. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Flint workshop.

HK/246a-b

Coordinates: 127.4/964.0 Description: Groups of stone structures encompassing 3 circular courtyards. There are at least 8 dwelling units and 2 phases of construction. In the second phase, some already-existing low walls were repaired and later raised with less care. Site at the confluence of 2 wadis; terrace with 3 stone structures. On the top of the hill, tumulus with 3 engraved rocks (HK/246b). Finds: Exiguous BAC flints. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C. Site typology: Courtyard, rock art, tumulus.

HK/246c

Coordinates: 126.200 / 964.170 Description: Three tumuli aligned north-south on the border of an area cleared of stones (diameter m 50). Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Tumuli.

HK/246d

Coordinates: 126,350 / 964,320 Description: Roman and Nabataean pottery sherds near the trail. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Pottery.

HK/246e

Coordinates: 126,460 / 964,320 Description: One engraved rock with old patina. At least 6 ibexes. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: II-A. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/246f

Coordinates: 126,830 / 964,80 Description: One engraved rock: a hunting scene of IV-A with more recent retouching. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-A, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/246g

Coordinates: 126,980 / 964,30 Description: Two engraved rocks. Finds: No material culture found. Periods RA: V, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/247

Coordinates: 127.6/964.6 Description: At least 6 tumuli and 3 round hut floors. Finds: Scanty flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, tumulus.

HK/248a

Coordinates: 127.8/965.7 Description: 3 stone dwelling units. Site typology: Encampment. Periods MC: RBY.

HK/248b

Coordinates: 127.7/965.7 Description: To the west of 248a stone-built structures of a Bedouin camp and rock engravings. Rock Art: 3 rocks with Arabic inscription. RA Period: Arabic. Site typology: Encampment, rock art.

HK/249a

Coordinates: 128.3/966.1 Description: 3 rectangular stone basements dwelling units and a few heaps of stones. The site seems to have been used twice: first as a dwelling site and then as a burial ground. Some of the stones of the dwelling site have been incorporated into the burial heaps of stones. Finds: Flint. UP blade. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stones.

HK/249b

Coordinates: 128.4/966.0 Description: Rock engraving. Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks, one in high relief. Periods RA: 2 of IV-C; others IV-A. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/249c

Coordinates: 128.2/966.0 Description: Remains of a nomadic camp, likely to be Beduoin. Finds: Fragments of Islamic pottery; a few flint blades likely to be BAC. Naturally shaped flint with shaped edges, which was used as an axe. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/250

Coordinates: 128.3/968.2 Description: An alignment of 7 tumuli near an ancient trail leading to Har Karkom. Site typology: Tumuli.

HK/251a-b

Coordinates: 128.5/968.1 Description: Stone spiral structure measuring about 10 m in diameter. 70 m northwest of site HK/251 are 4 heaps of stones on the flat top of a hill. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Shrine (?), tumulus.

HK/257

Coordinates: 126.7/969.7 Structures: A group of 4 circular stone structures. 60 m south, a rock shelter with a large cleared terrace in front. Site typology: Courtyard, rock shelter.

HK/258a

Coordinates: 127.0/968.9 Structures : 9-10 piles of stones arranged in a semicircle along the side of a trail, probably a plaza site. Finds: Scanty flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Heaps of stone, plaza(?)

HK/258b

Coordinates: 127.1/968.9 Description: Several heaps of stones; some forming a semicircle. The site is about 100 m from HK/253a-b. Site typology: Heaps of stone.

HK/258c

Coordinates: 127.360 / 969.220 Description: Four engraved rocks. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Four engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/258d

Coordinates: 127.360 / 969.360 Description: One engraved rock. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/259a

Coordinates: 128.4/968.8 Structures: 3 circular basement of huts and other heaps of stones. This is likely to be a plaza site. Description: A cluster of stone-built structures, 2 are dwelling units, each of them as the remains of another smaller structure a few metres away. 50 m northeast, 3 heaps of stones, likely to be tombs, and an alignment of 3 standing orthostats. 80 m east, a group of pillars, 5 are aligned. Finds: Scanty flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Orthostat, plaza, stone alignment, tumuli.

HK/259b

Coordinates: 128.3/968.8 Description: Remains of a circular stone structure. Site typology: Enclosure.

HK/260

Coordinates: 128.1/968.7 Description: A circular stone enclosure and a heap of stones. Site typology: Enclosure, heaps of stone.

HK/261

Coordinates: 128.3/968.4 Description: Numerous stone structures and heaps of stones are disseminated over the hamada. 6 are arranged in a row measuring over 60 m. 6 others form a semicircle. Finds: Scanty flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Heaps of stone, row.

HK/262

Coordinates: 127.1/967.6 Description: Hut floors are near a path. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/262b

Coordinates: 127.0/967.8 Description: In front of HK/334c, an isolated rock with engravings. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/262c

Coordinates: 127.1/967.8 Description: Opposite to HK/262b, rock art on the slope. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Three engraved rocks. A scene represents a warrior on horseback, with dagger and shield. Another warrior lies on the ground with his dagger by his side. Above him, an ideogram. Periods RA: IV-C, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/262d

Coordinates: 126.8/967.4 Description: A large black rock with a very dark patina with an engraving of an ibex. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: III, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/263

Coordinates: 128.7/966.4 Description: A circle of small standing stones about 30 m in diameter. Site typology: Orthostat, stone circle.

HK/264

Coordinates: 128.3/966.4 Description: 2 contiguous circles of small standing stones. Site typology: Orthostat, stone circle.

HK/265

Coordinates: 127.5/964.8 Description: 4 or 5 basements of huts and some heaps of stones, remains of an encampment similar to that of HK/266. Between BK/265 and BK/266, there exists an alignment of 15-16 small heaps of stones approximately 60 m in length. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stone, stone alignment.

HK/266

Coordinates: 127.6/964.8 Description: Basements of huts on top of a hill and remains of an encampment. Site typology: Campsite, encampment.

HK/267

Coordinates: 127.3/964.9 Description: 8 circular structures arranged in an ellipse, the larger axe is about 55 m. Site damaged by the superimposition of a Bedouin encampment. Southwest, a large tumulus. East, a Bedouin encampment. This appears to be the remains of a plaza site, which may be connected to site HK/234. This situation is very similar to that of site HK/253, where a plaza site with living structures is found in the vicinity of a plaza site made just of small heaps of stones. An engraved stone was found incorporated in 1 of the structures with the engravings turned against the earth. They were discovered by turning the stone which is likely to have remained since making of the BAC heap. The rock has a natural zoomorphic shape resembling an animal face. 2 dots pecked to add eyes to the natural form. The main figure is an open-legged human figure with a small human (?) figure between the legs. It may represent a scene of a woman giving birth. The natural anthropomorphic shape of the rock is likely to have attracted human interest. Finds: Bifaces LP, flints BAC. Many cores and flakes: flint workshop. Periods MC: LP, BAC, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, flint workshop, plaza, tumuli. Bibliography: EA87, pp. 21 & 126; EA96b, p. 31.

HK/268

Coordinates: 127.4/964.7 Description: 2 oval stone structures and a pile of stones. Finds: Flints MP and BAC. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: Engraved rocks, a small cluster of some 10 stones out of which at least 3 have anthropomorphic features. 1 of them has 2 small cup marks as "eyes". Periods RA: IV-C, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Anthropo-zoomorphic stones, rock art.

HK/269

Coordinates: 126.1/964.5 Description: Several heaps of stones along the path; remains of an encampment. A group of 5 standing stones arranged in a semicircle. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stone, orthostat.

HK/269b

Coordinates: 126.2/964.7 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/269c

Coordinates: 126.1/964.9 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Three engraved rocks. Among the other pictures, a scene of a caravan with 5 camels mounted by men. Periods RA: IVC, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/269d

Coordinates: 126.1/965.0 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: IVA, IVC, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/270a

Coordinates: 127.8/963.7 Description: Traces of 7 hut floors arranged in a semicircle; at least 4 additional ones further east. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/270b

Coordinates: 127.6/963.7 Description: Remains of an encampment, 9 heaps of stones of different sizes and remains of 4 well preserved hut floors; there are probably a few more in the vicinity. Site typology: Campsite, encampment, heaps of stone.

HK/271

Coordinates: 127.8/963.4 Description: At least 8 hut floors. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/272a

Coordinates: 128.4/963.3 Description: 5 aligned hut floors. There are 11-12 additional small circles cleared of stones forming a circle encompassing them. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/272b

Coordinates: 128.3/963.4 Description: 26 hut floors. 7 of them are arranged in a large semicircle. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/273

Coordinates: 128.6/963.2 Description: 20 hut floors. 8 of them are arranged in a semicircle. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/274

Coordinates: 128.4/962.8 Description: Remains of an encampment, basement of huts and piles of stones. Site typology: Campsite, encampment, heaps of stone.

HK/275

Coordinates: 128.6/962.6 Description: 10-11 small circles where the stones were cleared, are arranged in a large circle (diameter nearly 50 m). Geoglyph. Site typology: Geoglyph.

HK/276

Coordinates: 128.4/962.6 Description: At least 6 basements of huts and piles of stones. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stone.

HK/277

Coordinates: 127.7/962.9 Description: Alignment of small circles cleared of stones, forming a semicircle (diameter 37 m), on the top of a hill. Geoglyph?. Rock Art: On the slope 15 engraved rocks including early Semitic inscriptions. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-c, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Geoglyph(?), inscription, stone alignment.

HK/278

Coordinates: 127.6/962.8 Description: 10 small circles cleared of stones forming a circle about 50 m in diameter. Geoglyph(?). Site typology: Geoglyph(?), stone circle.

HK/279

Coordinates: 127.4/962.2 Description: 6 round areas cleared of stones and a few heaps of stones remains of an encampment. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stone.

HK/280a

Coordinates: 127.2/962.0 Description: A large plaza circle (about 50 m in diameter) made of 13-14 piles of stones (diam. approx. 1.5 m or 2 m), out of which 3 larger ones, appear to have been dwelling units; 2 heaps of stones inside the circle are likely to have been added later. In the centre of the circle there is an oval shape drawn with small pebbles. Finds: Cores MP, BAC. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Encampment, geoglyph, heaps of stone, plaza. Bibliography: EA87, p. 130.

HK/280b

Coordinates: 127.3/961.9 Description: A heap of stones and at least 15 circles cleared of stones, 10 are arranged in a sort of elliptical shape. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stone.

HK/280c

Coordinates: 127.7/961.7 Description: 2 hut floors and several smaller circles cleared of stones. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/281

Coordinates: 126.7/962.3 Description: 10 hut floors, a series of small circles cleared of stones, and 2 heaps of stones. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stone.

HK/282

Coordinates: 126.4/962.1 Description: A circular stone structure along the main branch of the wadi, probably an animal enclosure. Further north, a larger circular stone structure with smaller round units built into it. Circle of 9 small heaps of stones that could constitute a plaza site of reduced dimensions. This attribution is, however, doubtful. Period MC: BAC. Site typology: Courtyard, enclosure, heaps of stone, plaza.

HK/283

Coordinates: 126.4/962.4 Description: Piles of stones and hut floors are arranged in a semicircle. Site typology: Campsite, heap of stones.

HK/284

Coordinates: 126.4/962.8 Description: A large circle of standing stones near the edge of the wadi; a stone structure 50 m south and several piles of stones. Site typology: Courtyard, orthostat.

HK/285

Coordinates: 126.3/962.8 Description: A circular stone structure and a series of standing stones arranged in a circle. Site typology: Orthostat, shrine.

HK/286

Coordinates: 126.6/962.9 Description: 2 stone enclosures and a circular structure partly washed out by the river. Further south, piles of stones. Site typology: Enclosure, heap of stones.

HK/287

Coordinates: 126.8/963.1 Description: 12 standing stones in a line that runs almost east-west for 150 m. Site typology: Orthostat.

HK/287b

Coordinates: 126.6/963.2 Description: Remains of small walls and of agricultural terracing. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Campsite, terrace.

HK/287c

Coordinates: 126.140 / 963.330 Description: A boulder with thin incisions along the ceremonial trail. Abstract engravings on a smaller stone 10 m to the south. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: III, IV-A, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/287d

Coordinates: 126.330 / 963.900 Description: Two engraved rocks: a praying figure retouched with a lighter patina, and more recent engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/287e

Coordinates: 126.180 / 963.660 Description: Five engraved rocks: two footprints and an anthropomorphic engraving with a very dark patina. At least eight stylized quadrupeds. Early Arabic inscriptions. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Five engraved rocks. Periods RA: III, IV-A, VI. Site typology: Inscription, rock art.

HK/287f

Coordinates: 126.10 / 963.880 Description: Two rocks with incisions of the islamic period. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/287g

Coordinates: 126,570 / 963,870 Description: One engraved rock. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-A. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/287h

Coordinates: 126,610 / 963,930 Description: Five engraved rocks: in one, a geometric image with a dark patina has been retouched in a later period. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Five engraved rocks. Periods RA: II-B, IV-A, IV-C, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/288

Coordinates: 126.1/962.4 Description: 5 round areas cleared of stones and a few small rock shelters that were probably utilised as dwelling sites. Site typology: Campsite, encampment, rock shelter.

HK/289

Coordinates: 125.4/961.7 Description: 2 circular stone dwelling and heaps of stones. Site typology: Encampment, heap of stones.

HK/290

Coordinates: 125.7/961.8 Description: Remains of an encampment with heaps of stones. Finds: Scanty flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stones.

HK/291

Coordinates: 125.8/961.4 Description: 1 oval stone enclosure and 3 hut floors. Site typology: Campsite, encampment, enclosure.

HK/292

Coordinates: 126.2/961.2 Description: 3 hut floors and several heaps of stones at the confluence of 2 wadis. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stone.

HK/293

Coordinates: 126.4/961.1 Description: Remains of an encampment in a strategic position, overlooking an ancient trail. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/294

Coordinates: 126.9/960.9 Description: 2 rectangular dwelling structures and a stone circle. On the edge of the wadi nearby are several heaps of stones. Site typology: Heaps of stone, stone circle.

HK/295

Coordinates: 126.6/960.7 Description: Heaps of stones arranged in a semicircle. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stones.

HK/296

Coordinates: 126.9/960.6 Description: Heaps of stones and basement of huts and remains of an encampment. Site typology: Campsite, encampment, heaps of stone.

HK/297

Coordinates: 127.9/960.9 Description: Basement of huts, heaps of stones and remains of 2 circular stone structures. 6 of the hut floors form a circle. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stones.

HK/298a

Coordinates: 128.3/961.4 Description: 11-12 hut floors arranged in a circle. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/298b

Coordinates: 128.4/961.4 Description: A cluster of 3 large basement of huts. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/298c

Coordinates: 128.5/961.3 Description: A cluster of 10 hut floors. Site typology: Campsite, encampment.

HK/298d

Coordinates: 128.4/961.2 Description: 6 aligned hut floors. Site typology: Campsite, encampment.

HK/298e

Coordinates: 128.5/961.1 Description: Remains of 10 hut floors. Site typology: Campsite, encampment.

HK/299

Coordinates: 129.2/961.0 Description: 1 large hut floor and several smaller areas cleared of stones. Site typology: Campsite, encampment.
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Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).


Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links


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