Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

Beer Karkom, seven kilometres to the north of Har Karkom, may well be the biblical site of Rephidim

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Mount Sinai has been found.



Coordinates: 122.8/976.3 Description: Remains of a temporary camp. Probably used for 1 night. 80 m. below, towards the wadi, lines of stones may indicate an anthropomorphic geoglyph. Site typology: Geoglyph.


Coordinates: 122.4/976.2 Description: A tumulus and remains of a geoglyph. Site typology: Tumulus.


Coordinates: 124.3/971.4 Description: A large vertical boulder has a stone circle in front and several heaps of stones. Several other boulders of lesser size have also heaps of stones nearby and stone semi-circle. Traces of a geoglyph. Site typology: Geoplyph, heaps of stone.


Coordinates: 124.9/971.3 Description: Remains of a geoglyph. A circle of about 3 m. with a natural zoomorphic stone inside (ca. 30 cm in length). 2 angular stones make a V-shape. In its middle a flint core having a natural shape of a bird (length 6.5 cm). While the objects have a natural shape, the stones are not local and seem to have been brought by man and organized within the geoglyph. Site typology: Anthropo-zoomorphic stones, geoglyph.


Coordinates: 125.1/971.3 Description: A stone circle of heavy stones and a heap of stones. Half of the stone circle is preserved; the wadi cuts the other half. Considering the rocky structure of the soil, this may indicate a rather old age. When the stone circle was made, the topography was rather different. Finds: Rich flint industry of Middle Palaeolithic with a workshop. Periods MC: MP, ISL. Rock Art: A stone with very old hammering covering a central spot and a few lines. The patina is identical to that of the surface, which may indicate this non-figurative carving, goes back to the Pleistocene. Late rock art on a rock in the immediate vicinity. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Flint workshop, heap of stones. Bibliography: EA97b, p. 19.


Coordinates: 125.1/971.3 Description: A small stone with thin carvings of very old age. Identical to the surface patina. (The stone was left near the trail with a heap of stones). Site typology: Heap of stones.


Coordinates: 125.1/971.2 Description: A tumulus and a few heaps of stones on the top of a hill. Site typology: Heaps of stone, tumulus.


Coordinates: 125.4/971.4 Description: Rock engravings. An engraved standing stone with a south Semitic inscription, standing on a boulder. Rock Art: Ten engraved rocks. Periods RA: Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA96b, p. 42; EA97b, p.19.


Coordinates: 125.5/971.5 Description: Remains of a campsite. Site typology: Campsite.


Coordinates: 125.6/971.0 Description: Remains of a campsite. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flints, Islamic pottery. Periods MC: MP, ISL. Rock Art: Late rock art. Site typology: Campsite.


Coordinates: 125.2/970.7 Description: Middle Palaeolithic flint implements. Rock Art: One engraved rock with late engravings. Periods RA: IVC, VI. Site typology: Station.


Coordinates: 125.0/970.7 Description: Dwelling site with 2 buildings and a few heaps of stones. Finds: BAC flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:


Coordinates: 125.0/970.8 Description: Dwelling site. Finds: BAC flints. Periods MC: BAC.


Coordinates: 124.9/970.7 Description: Agricultural terracing. Finds: BAC flints, RBY pottery. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology:


Coordinates: 122.2/979.7 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment.


Coordinates: 122.6/979.5 Description: On a large terrace of wadi remains of encampments and dwelling structures that seem to have been reutilized in different periods. Finds: BAC flints and Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: BAC, BYZ. Site typology:


Coordinates: 122.7/979.5 Description: Burial with an elongation made of big stones tumulus. Paved platform with anthropomorphic stones.


Coordinates: 122.6/978.4 Description: Agricultural terracing. Site typology:


(cfr DB)


(cfr DB)


Coordinates: 129.8/973.7 Description: Agricultural terracing. Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.9/973.0 Description: Agricultural terracing.


Coordinates: 129.8/972.7 Description: Agricultural terracing.


Coordinates: 130.0/972.5 Description: Remains of a roman-Byzantine village with 5 structures in a row on the border of the surveyed surface. 1 tumulus and burial zone. Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.8/972.3 Description: Inside a small wadi which enters in a larger wadi in front of the site BK/843, there is a rectangular zone which was cleared of stones. This probably was a basement of a Bedouin 10t. Agricultural terracing in the inner wadi. Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.9/972.3 Description: Rock art, in part included in the area of survey, in part outside the area. Small tumulus of black stones surrounded by rock art. Platform paved by black stones. On a natural zoomorphic head the eyes were graved. These have a quite black patina. A lighter patina evidences more recent engravings. Finds: MP flints; RBY pottery. Periods MC: MP, RBY. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI, VII. Bibliography: EA97b, p. 19.


Coordinates: 129.9/972.2 Description: A small agricultural piece of ground with a canal to collect water, under the hill of rock engravings (HK/845). Finds: Flint and pottery. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.9/972.0 Description: Remains of a BAC village with a large courtyard on the slope. Finds: A Chalcolithic hoe. BAC pottery Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Bibliography: EA97b, p. 19.


Coordinates: 129.8/972.1 Description: Remains of a BAC dwelling structure. More recent graves, probably Bedouin. Finds: A Chalcolithic hoe made by flint. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.8/971.8 Description: Agricultural terracing. Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.6/971.7 Description: Agricultural terracing. Site typology:


Coordinates: 128.6/971.4 Description: Agricultural terracing Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.6/971.3 Description: Agricultural terracing Site typology:


Coordinates: 129.3/971.1 Description: Agricultural terracing.


Coordinates: 129.0/971.0 Description: Agricultural terracing.


Coordinates: 129.5/970.9 Description: Remains of an ancient trail.


Coordinates: 129.1/970.6 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology:
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Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).

Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links

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