Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
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Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

Was the perceived sanctity of the mountain an uninterrupted process, or was it renewed in each new period?


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Mount Sinai has been found.
 



HAR KARKOM SITES 1-99

HK/1a

Coordinates: 123.2/968.2 Description: Remains of encampment. Stone alignments form 10 oval and rectangular structures. This was probably a seasonal station. A courtyard structure (BAC) appears to be more permanent and older than the others. The site was settled during two distinct phases in the BAC period. Finds: Flints. Remains of Byzantine grindstone. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Courtyard, encampment, station, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 295; EA89, p. 15; EA88b, p. 24.

HK/1b

Coordinates: 123.3/968.2 Description: Remains of a Bedouin encampment in which several pre-existing structures in a row (BAC) have been re-utilised. 1 rectangular structure contains 2 stone circles in the north-eastern corner. Several small stones were located inside one of the stone circles. The plan resembles the Uvda valley "shrine". North of this structure, 12 large rocks are arranged in a semicircle. Further north, 3 circular structures can be discerned. Several rocks with natural human facial features were found near the semicircle and seem to have been placed there intentionally. 2 of them might have been retouched in ancient times to further emphasise their shapes. Finds: Pottery, Flints. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Anthropomorphic rock, encampment, row, shrine, stone circles. Bibliography: EA86, p. 295; EA89, p. 15; EA88b, p. 24.

HK/2a-b

Coordinates: 123.8/968.2 Description: Several engraved stones along the trail, over a 250-m long area. Finds: Flint implements. Pecking tools with evident traces of use were found near a rock. They were presumably used to engrave the figures on that rock. Several rocks along the pathway appear to have naturally anthropomorphic features and may have been placed there intentionally. Sherds of an Islamic vessel. Periods MC: UP, BAC, ISL. Rock Art: About 400 m from the beginning of the trail leading to the mountain, about 20 small, hard sandstone rocks covered by a dark patina are engraved. Several of the small engraved rocks were decorated with various shades of patina, indicating the overlapping of different periods. About 10 rocks are aligned along the trail. One recurring image is the conventional praying figure with upraised arms, some of which have a simple line next to them. This hermetic "cult" theme appears to be characteristic of this area. One rock has an engraving of a meander, and next to it is a series of 8 strokes in 2 rows of 4 each, which were added later (as indicated by their comparatively lighter patina). The praying figures and symbols of period IV-A and the animal figures of periods II and III are particularly noteworthy. Several signs with lighter patina are from period VII. Periods RA: II, III, IV-A, IV-C , VI, VII. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, rock art. Bibliography EA85, p. 131; EA86, p. 296; EA93a, p. 30; EA88b, p. 24;

HK/3a

Coordinates: 124.2/968.2 Rock Art: Significant concentration of rock engravings, mostly along the eastern side of the trail. At least 10 engraved rocks; several are immovable while others are small and portable. It appears that the practice of engraving rocks along the mountain trail persisted in several periods. The engravings begin in period II (1 rock), and include examples of other periods. Periods RA: II, III, IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 296.

HK/3b

Coordinates: 124.1/968.2 Rock Art: Several engraved rocks and 1 orthostat. 2 engraved stones were placed at the base of the orthostat. Periods RA: IV-A, VII. Site typology: Orthostat, rock art. Bibliography: EA85, p. 129; EA86, p. 296; EA96b, pp. 30-31.

HK/3c

Coordinates: 124.2/968.1 Rock art: 12 engraved rocks. Periods RA: III, IV-C, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Inscriptions, rock art.

HK/4a-b

Coordinates: 124.3/968.3 Description: Area of engraved rocks. Finds: Flint tools, several of which are Neolithic, including a typical chipped axe (site HK/4a). Flint implements of the Middle Palaeolithic and BAC periods are found among engraved rocks (site HK/4b). Periods MC: MP, NEO, BAC. Rock Art: 24 engraved rocks. The figures include many ibexes. One of them appears to have been re-engraved several times; the rounded horns unite the 2 heads. The figure may represent a two-headed ibex. One of the engravings represent a hunting scene that includes a hunter with a bow and arrow. An unusual engraving represents a tree-like shape with 6 branches. Another scene apparently represents 2 quadrupeds with very large horns being attacked by a lion. Engravings show various shades of patina. On the top of the small hill, north of the trail, there is a large outcrop of dark stone covered with engravings. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V. Site typology: Rock Art, Station. Bibliography: EA85, p. 131; EA86, p. 296.

HK/5a-b

Coordinates: 124.3/968.2 Description: Remains of 5 oval hut floors and 4 smaller areas cleared of stones. Remains of 3 stone structures. The site was utilised in at least 3 distinct periods, the first created the hut floors; the second built the stone structures. Subsequently these structures were reused. Finds: Small blade flints (UP). Some of them have secondary retouching probably accomplished in the BAC period; Pottery (RBY). A bifacial hand-axe from the Lower Palaeolithic was found 30 m north of site HK/5b. Periods MC: LP, UP, BAC, RBY. Rock Art: 7 engraved rocks. Besides pecked engravings linear incisions are also present. Among the engravings is a description of a leg snare or trap and Thamudic inscriptions. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 296.

HK/6

Coordinates: 124.4/968.3 Description: A tumulus of large stones one of which, in the centre, is engraved. 30 m above, is an outcrop of tabular flint; its thickness varies between 30 and 40 cm, and is over 10 m in length. The flint was extracted for tool-making in the Palaeolithic period over an area of about 50 x50 m. Finds: Flints (Upper and Middle Palaeolithic). Flint workshop. Large flint cores were obtained from the layer described above. Several fan scrapers and flints with secondary retouching (BAC); "anthropomorphic" rocks. The tumulus was excavated during the 1999 campaign. All the white stones were removed, while the black stones of the external circumference were not touched. Under the tumulus an altar-stone was found, white, squared, of about 50x50 cm, maintained in an horizontal position by two other smaller stones underneath. As in other cases of previous years, this tumulus was not built for burial purposes. The tumulus has been interpreted as a Gal-ed, or testimonial hip of stone. Afterwards, the tumulus was reconstituted and stones put back in their previous positions. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A. Site typology: Anthropomorphic rocks, flint quarry, flint workshop, inscriptions, orthostat, rock art, tumulus. Bibliography: EA85, p. 131; EA86, p. 296; SU85, p. 131.

HK/7a

Coordinates: 125.0/968.5 Description: Stone structures, including what may have been a tower; and stone circles. Tumuli found all around seem to indicate the funerary role of this structure. The site is a rare example of a stone built site on the plateau. It overlooks the northern valley from near the edge of the precipice. Numerous flint tools from the BAC period cover the surface around the stone-built structure. Two trial trenches were dug, one in the courtyard ("A") and the other in one of the stone circles ("B"). No archaeological remains in the dig, 30 cm deep in area "A". All findings are at the surface, which appears to be lower now than in the BAC period. 20 m to the east of the site are 6 Palaeolithic hut floors. Finds: Lithic tools from the Middle Palaeolithic were retouched and reused in the BAC period. A large number of flints dating to the Upper Palaeolithic and the Middle Palaeolithic period were found. Sporadic examples from the Lower Palaeolithic period include a bifacial hand-axe. Pottery and Flints (BAC). Periods MC: LP, MP, UP, BAC. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Period RA: V. Site typology: Rock art, shrine?, stone circles, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 296; EA95, p. 15.

HK/7b

Coordinates: 125.1/968.6 Finds: About 60 m east of site HK/7, a large concentration of Middle Palaeolithic flint implements. Periods MC: MP. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock with period VI figures and Arabic inscriptions. Period RA: VI. Site typology: Inscriptions, rock art, station. Bibliography: EA95, p. 15; EA96b, p. 17; EA93a, p. 18.

HK/7c

Coordinates: 125.0/968.7 Description: About 50 m north of site HK/7 there is a "private shrine" with an orthostat with eyes which are partially natural, completed by artificial carving. Some stones make a semi- circle around the orthostat. Site typology: Orthostat, shrine.

HK/7d

Coordinates: 125.1/968.8 Description: About 100 m northeast of site 7a, there is a sort of depression with an entrance to a shallow cave, which goes down at least 5 m. Finds: Flints near the entrance. The cave was cleaned with no findings inside the cave. Periods MC: MP. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Period RA: V. Site typology: Cave, rock art.

HK/8a

Coordinates: 125.1/968.5 Description: 250 m northeast of site HK/7, there is an alignment of flat stones. Further south, 5 small, round hut floors, Palaeolithic in type, aligned in a row NW-SE. In one of them a sounding was conducted on one quarter of the circle. A few flints of poor blade industry were found just below the surface. Finds: Flints of the LP, MP, UP and BAC periods; Pottery (BYZ); Group of sherds which could be MBI (metallic ware?). Bifacial hand-axe. Periods MC: LP, MP, UP, BAC, RBY. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: V. Site typology: Campsite, encampment, rock art, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 296.

HK/8b

Coordinates: 125.3/968.8 Description: 1 rock with engravings. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock with a Thamudic inscription. Period RA: V, VI, VII. Site typology: Inscription, rock art.

HK/8c

Coordinates: 125.3/968.7 Description: A vast area with standing stones and alignments some 130 m long. On its southern side, there is a group of standing stones, small in size, alternating between lying and standing. In the vicinity, there are several larger standing stones, 2 of which have natural anthropomorphic shapes and have a small assemblage of flint flakes in front of them. There is a peculiar structure of aligned stones, some have been broken on the spot. The dark patina allows one to suppose that the breaks are very old. Northeast of the site HK/7a (250 m) a rectangular shape is formed by an alignment of flat stones (remains of a campsite with Byzantine sherds). Rock Art: 1 rock with traces of heavily eroded engravings. Period RA: (?) Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, rock art, shrine, stone alignment.

HK/8d

Coordinates: 125.4/968.7 Rock Art: 4 engraved stones. Traces of old engravings near more recent ones. Period RA: II (?), V, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/9

Coordinates: 125.0/968.7 Description: A flint workshop (MP) with numerous cores and flakes. Finds: Retouched tools, cores and flakes. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/10a-b

Coordinates: 125.3/968.4 Description: An orthostat and the remains of a low stone wall. Flint workshop with many tools, cores and flakes from the Middle Palaeolithic and BAC periods. 50 m to the south, on the top of the hill, are traces of a geoglyph made of white stones on the dark hamada (HK/10b). Finds: Various BAC tools reutilised Palaeolithic flakes. The chipping caused by such reuse has a lighter patina. Among the lithic tools are several fan scrapers of BAC type. There is also a large burin from the Bronze Age with its point chipped by use, probably utilised to make rock engravings. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Flint workshop, geoglyph, orthostat. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/11a-b

Coordinates: 125.5/968.1 Description: Lower Palaeolithic station that extends across the hamada covering an area of 200 x400 m (HK/11a). 50 m north of the site a large, oval hut floor emerges on the loess showing a darker shade (HK/11b) on its northern side. Finds: Bifacial hand-axes and other stone tools. Periods MC: LP. Site typology: Station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/11c

Coordinates: 125.4/968.1 Description: Several heaps of stones or low tumuli include engraved rocks. The area may have been a burial ground. 9 stones make an oval shape having a diameter of 7-9 m. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: A cluster of 9 engraved stones 30-40 m north of site HK/47. One of the engraved rocks represents a Neolithic (?) axe. An early Semitic inscription (?). On the other side of the wadi, two of the engraved surfaces are white. On several of the engraved rocks are still in situ pecking tools. Periods RA: II, IV-A, VII. Site typology: Burial ground (?),heaps of stones, inscription (?), rock art, tumuli.

HK/12

Coordinates: 125.14/968.36 Description: A flint workshop (MP) and rock art. Finds: Flints, some flakes are retouched with BAC technique. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. Mainly from periods IV-C and VI. Periods RA: IV-C, VI. Site typology: Flint workshop, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/13

Coordinates: 124.9/968.3 Description: Concentration of flint implements and rock art. Period MC: UP. Rock Art: 10 engraved rocks. Mostly period IV-A. Some show engravings that are completely eroded. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art, station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297; EA96b, p. 24; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/13b-c

Coordinates: 125.1/968.3 Description: Rock art (HK/13b) and 3 small tumuli of dark stones on a small hill. Well-shaped flint implements (HK/13c). Finds: Large blades cut with Levallois technique, Karkomian; BAC flints. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Rock Art: 16 engraved rocks. Periods RA: II, III, IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297; EA96b, p. 24 & 43.

HK/13d

Coordinates: 124.9/968.2 Description: 3 dwelling unit bases and several small stone circles mostly made of small stones (max. diameter 1.5 m). Periods MC: ISL?. Rock Art: 3 rocks with engravings, including a Thamudic inscription. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Encampment, inscription, rock art, stone circles. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/13e

Coordinates: 124.9/968.3 Description: Standing stones in a small circle of stones. Private shrine. Rock Art: The vertical stone is engraved but eroded. There seem to be traces of ancient engravings. Site typology: Shrine, standing stones.

HK/14

Coordinates: 125.22/968.36 Description: Natural rock shelter with Bedouin closing wall constructed in front. Finds: Flints (BAC); Pottery (RBY) in close proximity of the entrance to the rock shelter. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, V, VII. Site typology: Rock art, rock shelter. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/15

Coordinates: 125.7/966.8 Description: An alignment of stones and an orthostat set vertically on the slope toward the wadi. Finds: Flints (BAC), including a Chalcolithic adze and several fan scrapers. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Orthostat, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/15b

Coordinates: 125.7/966.8 Description: 3 hut floors and a stone circular alignment of stone. A trail connects this site with site 206b. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/16

Coordinates: 126.0/967.5 Description: Upper Palaeolithic site with remains of 8 hut floors, one is comparatively larger and virtually rectangular in shape, while the other seven are oval. Nearby are the remains of accessory structures. On the northern side, a series of at least 12 white areas ranging in diameter between 40 and 50 cm form 2 concentric circles. The ensemble seems to be the remains of a campsite that hosted a fairly large human community over a significant length of time. The site has yielded a wealth of lithic tools that are especially abundant around the hut floors and in the central area among them. All the finds were left in situ, except for an area between the campsite and the workshop, from which they were collected. Finds: Worked flints were systematically collected within a 12 m2 area on the eastern side of the encampment. The large number of cores, flakes and unworked blades is particularly noteworthy. Some material from the northern periphery of the site was also collected separately, between 10 and 12 m from the hut floors; everything in the area of the campsite was left in situ. Blocks of fine quality flint are found on the surrounding hamada. The enormous abundance of flakes at the settlement suggests that its specific function was probably the cutting and shaping of flint tools. Periods MC: UP, EPI?. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297; EA96a p. 26.

HK/17

Coordinates: 126.1/967.6 Description: Remains of 8 hut floors. The largest is oval-shaped and is 14x8 m. Flint workshops. The ensemble possibly reflects two stages of occupation. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic and Early Upper Palaeolithic (Aurignacian ?). Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/18

Coordinates: 126.0/967.9 Description: An orthostat on the edge of the precipice, facing east. The eastern side of the orthostat's upper portion presents a naturally-shaped anthropomorphic face with eyes and nose. An alignment of small stones is placed around its base in a semi-circle, of which approximately half the original circumference has survived (south-southeast). In front of the orthostat, eastward, there is a small cleared space encircled by larger stones. The standing stone is a different colour than the surrounding rocks, which for the most part are rust-coloured. The orthostat is quite visible from the Paran desert below for a distance of about 10 km. Finds: Flints (MP), some with secondary retouching that has a comparatively lighter patina (BAC). Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, orthostat, stone alignment, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 297.

HK/19

Coordinates: 125.5/967.5 Description: Remains of 2 circular hut floors are located east of a prominent trail crossing the hamada. Finds: Numerous flints of "Levallois" type from the Middle Palaeolithic. The entire area around the hut floors is fully covered by worked flint. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/20

Coordinates: 125.6/967.5 Description: Hut floor and flint workshop. Finds: BAC worked flints; flakes and lithic tools from the Middle Palaeolithic were retouched and reused in BAC times as it can be seen from the lighter patina of the retouchings. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/21a

Coordinates: 124.8/968.4 Description: Remains of 4 hut floors with Middle Palaeolithic implements and a stone structure. Flint workshop with several stones and 2 flint cores surrounded by large flakes. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period ("Levallois" technique), 5 of which with traces of secondary retouching in BAC Period. UP blades. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/21b

Coordinates: 124.9/968.4 Description: Remains of 5 hut floors. Finds: Flints from an early phase of the Upper Palaeolithic Period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/22

Coordinates: 124.4/968.6 Description: 2 partly destroyed circular tumuli, probably disturbed fairly recently. One tumulus was excavated. It revealed a small, oval sepulchral cell measuring 70x60 cm. Finds: Human bones of a sub-adult. The long bones were put together (secondary burial). The skeleton was in the process of decomposition. A small, perforated shell bead that formed part of a necklace was found. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/23

Coordinates: 124.5/968.5 Description: Large Palaeolithic station on the plateau. At least 4 flint workshops, with several nodules and cores scattered over the surface. 7 hut floors aligned in a row are connected by a trail. 2 huts form an eight figure. At the junction, a semicircle of flat stones probably indicates the location of a hearth. The site shows several phases of occupation. To the west there is a funerary tumulus. Near the huts, an altar with an "anthropomorphic" stone is surrounded by 3 flint nodules and a stone circle and has 3 flint nodules at its feet. Several geoglyphs or pebble drawings. One of them seems to represent a quadruped ca. 2 m long. There is also a white pebble with 5 engraved dots. Finds: A Lower Palaeolithic bifacial hand-axe. Several flint cores and implements of the Middle Palaeolithic (with bifacials of Acheulean tradition), and Upper Palaeolithic. BAC flints. Periods MC: LP, MP, UP, BAC. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, campsite, fireplace, flint workshop, geoglyph, shrine, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/23b

Coordinates: 124.3/968.4 Description: 7 heaps of stones. Each one has a standing stone with anthropomorphic shapes. Behind this to the south is another heap, which might be a tomb. To the west there is a trail, which seemingly leads to nowhere, but in fact leads to a flat stone with a group of stones arranged in a triangular shape. The 3 corners are oriented to north, southeast, northwest. Finds: Flint (BAC) in small quantity. "Anthropomorphic" stones. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, Heaps of stone, tumulus (?). Bibliography: EA93a, pp. 72 & 73; EA87, p. 210; EA97a, p. 111.

HK/24a-b

Coordinates: 125.4/967.6 Description: The "Midianite temple": remains of low stone walls form a courtyard structure with a lateral room. In the middle of the eastern wall there is an "apse", in front of which there is a rectangular platform raised 25-30cm off the ground; it measures 1 x1.20 m (altar?). 2 orthostats are set near to this structure. Several piles of stones, presumably tumuli, are encompassing it. Geoglyphs around the site. "Anthropomorphic" stones. Finds: Pottery; Flints. A sounding was made next to the "altar" against the wall: the soil was sterile. A number of rocks that are in the courtyard and next to the structure, have natural anthropomorphic shapes and seem to have been intentionally brought there by man. A trench of 15x1 m was excavated during the 1999 campaign. At a depth of 60 cm from the ground level, five standing stones were found, still standing in an upright position. They are likely to be "family spirits" or terafim. Also the remains of a pillar- hole has been identified in the centre of the central "courtyard" which thus may have been covered by a roof of organic material supported by the pillar. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: Along the side of the structure, close to where there was apparently an entrance; there is an engraved stone with 2 symbols in a pattern that is repeated elsewhere on the mountain: a snake-like form and an "M"-shape which is possibly a face defined by a line for the nose and eyebrows on either side. Further up on the rock there is a third sign which is less clear. It was not possible to establish whether the rock engravings date to the same period as the structure. Approximately 60 m east of the structure there are 12 engraved rocks with snake-like forms, ibex, footprints and one praying figure (site HK/24 b). Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, courtyard, geoglyphs, orthostats, rock art, shrine, tumuli (?). Bibliography: EA85, p. 130; EA86, p. 298; EA93a, pp. 16 & 60; EA97a, pp. 107 & 110; EA96c, p. 19; EA95, p. 14.

HK/24c

Coordinates: 125.3/967.8 Description: Large size geoglyphs. 2 of them apparently represent quadrupeds. On the ground these are hardly visible but they appear clearly from an aerial view. Some of the geoglyphs are made of light stone, natural outcrops completing them with lines of stones. 1 of the quadruped geoglyphs is 31.70 m by 12.20 m. The white stones have late rock engravings. Another one of the geoglyphs (19 m long) has a stone built cyst grave in the middle of its body, which may be a later addition. Site HK/26 includes a large number of rock engravings and is approximately 100 m. away. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Geoglyphs, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298; EA93a, pp. 17 & 60; EA97a, pp. 107 & 110; EA96c, p. 19.

HK/25a

Coordinates: 125.2/967.6 Description: Remains of low walls, 2 tumuli and several stone circles, probably related to site HK/24, approximately 150 m west of that site. Finds: BAC, MP, UP flints. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks, also depicting footprints in pairs, oriented toward the mountaintop. Periods RA: IV-A, VII. Site typology: Rock art, stone alignment, stone circle, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/25b

Coordinates: 125.3/967.5 Description: Palaeolithic site with 13 hut floors placed in 2 groups: the first one has 10 huts in semicircle with an alignment N-S, and 2 flint workshops. A path connects 3 of the huts. The second group of huts is placed on SW. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flint tools. A quarter of a hut basement was excavated, to a depth of 40 cm. Compact red soil sterile without stones was found, indicating that the hamada was cleaned by man before use. The habitation soil was eroded. A soil sample was collected. Palaeolithic floor level appears to have been higher than the present one. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/25c

Coordinates: 125.2/967.5 Description: 5 round hut floors placed in a fan shape. Finds: Flints of the Lower Palaeolithic, among them 1 Acheulean hand-axe. 1 blade of the Upper Palaeolithic. Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/25d

Coordinates: 125.2/967.5 Description: 4 Palaeolithic hut floors aligned NW-SE on the west of site 25b. Finds: Flints worked by Levalloisian technique. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/26

Coordinates: 125.2/967.7 Description: A hut floor, an elongated alignment of stones and 3 tumuli. Some stones seem to have been arranged in connection with rock art. Several stones having naturally anthropomorphic-shaped faces were apparently brought there intentionally. Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks. One Nabataean inscription indicates the date of part of the assemblage. The darker patina of the engravings on one of the rocks indicates a comparatively earlier date. A hunting scene on that rock dates to period III. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, VII. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, encampment, inscription, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/27a

Coordinates: 125.2/967.8 Description: Remains of 6 oval hut floors placed in a rectangular shape with a N-S orientation. Upper Palaeolithic site, Karkomian phase. 2 stone circles and 2 tumuli. Finds: Next to the stone circles there are several "anthropo-zoomorphic" rocks that appear to have been placed there intentionally. Karkomian flints and LP flints with later retouching (BAC). Periods MC: LP, UP, BAC. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. A figure of an individual with large hands is particularly noteworthy. There is also a figure of a camel dating to period IV-C. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V. Site typology: "Anthropo-zoomorphic" stones, campsite, rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 298.

HK/27b

Coordinates: 125.4/967.8 Description: Remains of 5 hut floors in a circle. Finds: Early Upper Palaeolithic flints. BAC flints. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/27c

Coordinates: 125.4/967.8 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors in a row, to the east of site HK/27b. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period, some with BAC retouching. BAC flints. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/28

Coordinates: 125.5/967.6 Description: Fragments of 2 broken slabs of stone on the ground. Finds: 10 m north of the trail, fragments of stone slabs on the hamada. They are of light- coloured sandstone, made of a type of rock which is different from the surrounding rocks. 1 slab is virtually whole. The other is in several pieces. They seem to have shattered after having been thrown to the ground. The less damaged slab measures 43 x58 cm and between 4 and 5 cm in thickness and has traces of pecking. These probably represent animal figures. The smooth edges are rounded on the upper part and have been intentionally shaped. 1 fragment has several artificial signs engraved in the stone, which are barely visible. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: Rock engravings on the face of 1 of the broken slabs. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Slabs, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299.

HK/29a

Coordinates: 125.2/968.0 Description: A richly engraved rock. Finds: 1 Acheulean hand-axe. Periods MC: LP, BAC. Rock Art: A rounded rock, standing out in the hamada, is marked on all exposed sides with engravings of various phases. The upper part may have been deeply carved in ancient times with a vague animal shape which was alterated by subsequent engravings. There are shallow traces of engravings on 2 other rocks in the vicinity. Periods RA: I?, IV-A, IV-C, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299; EA96b, p. 22; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/29b

Coordinates: 125.4/968.2 Description: A stone circle decorated with rock engravings. Remains of a partly destroyed tumulus. 5 Palaeolithic hut floors located in a fan shape. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic; some retouches (BAC) show a lighter patina. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks about 90 m from site HK/29. Periods RA: IV-A. Site typology: Campsite, rock art, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299.

HK/29c

Coordinates: 125.4/968.2 Description: Remains of 8 Palaeolithic hut floors; a smaller area cleared of stones in the centre of a flint workshop. Finds: Flints of the Early Upper Palaeolithic. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299.

HK/29d

Coordinates: 125.1/968.1 Description: To the west of site 29c are 2 Palaeolithic hut floors. Finds: 2 hand-axes of Micocquian type. Periods MC: LP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/30

Coordinates: 125.7/967.3 Description: 5 small heaps of stones, probably Bedouin tombs, and late rock art. Rock Art: Along the wadi for about 200 m between sites HK/16 and HK/31, an area of rock art, mostly executed on light-coloured rocks. Islamic inscription. Periods RA: VI-VII. Site typology: Inscription, rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299.

HK/31a

Coordinates: 125.5/967.3 Description: Several heaps of stone near a large number of rock engravings. A rock in the tumulus is very weathered and seems to have been shaped to resemble an anthropomorphic bust. Excavations: An sounding measuring 1x1 m was excavated within the stone circle up to the base rock, down to 60 cm below the surface; there were no finds. Rock Art: 16 engraved rocks, 3 of which are within the stone circle. Most of the engravings are made on rocks which are part of the structure that seem to be specifically related to them. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-B (?), IV-C, VI. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, heaps of stone, rock art, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299.

HK/31b

Coordinates: 125.4/967.2 Finds: A large flint scraper, finely worked on all sides. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299.

HK/32a

Coordinates: 125.3/967.3 Description: Several stone structures including a tumulus and a stone circle with a tail-like projection; extending southwest. Rock Art: 10 engraved rocks. There are several particularly significant rocks, including one with a harmonious grazing scene and another with the rod and snake motif of period IV-A. Periods RA: III, IV-A, VI. Site typology: Rock art, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299; EA96b, pp. 29,34 & 36; EA97a, p. 109; EA89, p. 16; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/32b

Coordinates: 125.4/967.3 Rock Art: 27 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299; EA89, p. 16.

HK/32c

Coordinates: 125.3/967.4 Description: Geoglyph to the E of HK/32. A partly disturbed group of stone alignments are found over an area of 60 by 35 m. Site typology: Geoglyph. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 69. 327.

HK/33

Coordinates: 125.4/967.1 Description: Circle of stones, with a larger stone at the centre. Several stones are decorated with rock art. Other minor heaps of stones may indicate a burial ground that is connected to rock art. Rock Art: Important concentration of about 20 engraved rocks. There is evidence of a long continuous human presence at this site. Engravings with various shades of patina reveal that the same rocks were engraved at different stages. Important hunting scene of period III already published on several occasions. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, V, VI, VII. Note: This is the first site of rock art that was discovered at Har Karkom in 1954. Site typology: Burial ground (?), rock art, stone circle, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299; EA93a, p. 62; EA96b, p. 28.

HK/34

Coordinates: 125.5/967.1 Rock Art: 10 engraved rocks seem to constitute a continuation of the previous site. Thamudic inscriptions. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Inscriptions, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299; EA96b, p. 40.

HK/35a-b

Coordinates: 125.3/967.2 Finds: MP flints with later retouching from BAC period. Rock Art: About 35 engraved rocks. A Safaitic inscription. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/36a

Coordinates: 125.0/967.3 Description: An alignment of black stones forming a semicircle facing the top of the mountain. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flints. A stone with 2 cup marks and a white standing stone. Disturbed traces of a geoglyph. Alignment of white stones on the black hamada for over 60 metres. Periods MC: MP. Rock Art: 39 engraved rocks, 4 of which form part of a stone circle. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C. Site typology: Geoglyph, rock art, station, stone alignment, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 299; EA96b, p. 36 & 43; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/36b

Coordinates: 124.8/967.2 Rock Art: 45 engraved rocks. Periods RA: I, IV-A, VI. Finds: Quartz pointed tools used for producing rock engravings. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300; EA93a, p. 6; EA96b, p. 38; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/37

Coordinates: 124.7/967.1 Description: An orthostat of non-local stone, with engraved lines. A small tumulus and an "anthropomorphic" stone. A few rocks have deteriorate traces of engravings which are partially eroded. Rock Art: 20 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, orthostat, rock art, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300.

HK/38a

Coordinates: 125.0/967.1 Description: Remains of a large enclosure or pen, which reutilises an alignment of several orthostats. Traces of repair of the low walls suggest that the site was used at 2 different stages. Finds: Pottery (RBY); 1 BAC sherd ? Periods MC: BAC?, RBY. Rock Art: 10 engraved rocks, with 3 hunting scenes from period III, as well as Safaitic and Nabataean inscriptions from period IV-C. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Inscriptions, orthostats, rock art, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300; EA93a, p. 8; EA96b, pp. 26 & 32.

HK/38b

Coordinates: 125.3/967.0 Description: A small tumulus on the slope of the mountain which was disturbed in ancient times. In the vicinity alignments of white stones may indicate the remains of a geoglyph. Site typology: Geoglyph, tumulus.

HK/39

Coordinates: 124.9/967.0 Description: Remains of enclosures, with 2 phases of construction, the most recent probably dating to the Roman-Byzantine time. Some standing stones have been reused in the later walls. A tumulus with engraved rocks and an orthostat standing in front of the tumulus. Finds: Flints, Byzantine pottery. In 2 cases early engravings have been intentionally obliterated in ancient times. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC, RBY. Rock Art: 30 engraved rocks near the structures. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Enclosure, orthostat, rock art, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300; EA93a, p. 68; EA96b, pp. 37 & 44.

HK/40 (Peak 1)

Coordinates: 125.0/966.6 Description: The top of the mountain is formed by 2 peaks connected by a saddle. One is narrow and long (Peak 1, HK/40), while the other is rounded (Peak 2, HK/42) and is a few metres lower than the other. From the west the peaks resemble 2 breasts. On the tallest peak of the mountain (847 m) there is a circular structure measuring 1.8 m in diameter, 2 low walls which hug the rock face. Several round flint pebbles have been intentionally aligned (for about a metre) within this enclosure. An analogous row about 2 m long had been noticed in 1982, but it had disappeared in 1984. Such alignments are probably the remains of geoglyphs or pebble figures (shapes drawn on the ground with pebbles). On the peak, which is a gentle slope about 130 m long and between 2 and 6 m wide, there are 4 stone piles, accumulations of flint pebbles similar to those used for the figures described above. On the northern side there is an orthostat fixed artificially in a vertical position, which measures about 1.2 m from the ground and has a naturally pointed shape. An "anthropomorphic" stone has 2 incisions as eyes. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, geoglyphs, orthostat, station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300.

HK/41a

Coordinates: 125.1/966.6 Description: 3 piles of rounded flint pebbles are located on the southern side of Peak 1. Next to one of these, in a natural fissure in the rock, an accumulation of about 20 of these pebbles was discovered. These homogeneous, perfectly round stones weigh between 1 and 3 kg each, and seem to have been intentionally placed in the fissure by man. Finds: Pebbles, quartz crystal. Site typology: Station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300.

HK/41b

Coordinates: 125.2/966.7 Description: A pile of rounded flint pebbles in the north-eastern part of Peak 1. There are 7 similar piles on and around the Peak (sites HK/40 and HK/41). None of the pebbles show traces of having been worked. Site typology: Station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300.

HK/42 (Peak 2)

Coordinates: 125.2/966.4 Description: On Peak 2 of the mountain, about 4 to 5 m lower than Peak 1 and separated from it by a wide (150 m) saddle, there is a stone circle of the same dimensions as at site HK/40 (diameter about 1.7 m). Further west, about 20 m from the circle, there is a 4 m long alignment of small stones which separates the highest point from a small rock shelter, which measures 1.4 m in width and 1.1 m in height and approximately 1.6 m in depth. It is located on the summit of the little hill. The stone circle is of BAC type. "Anthropomorphic" stones. Finds: Fragment of copper ring (likely to be Bedouin), BAC flint implements, a cluster of "anthropomorphic" stones some of which seemed to be intentionally carved and subsequently heavily eroded by natural forces. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Anthropomorphic rocks, rock shelter, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300; EA93a, p. 20; EA97a, p. 111.

HK/43

Coordinates: 125.5/966.8 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing from the Roman-Byzantine period. They have been repaired in Islamic times. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: RBY, Isl. Site typology: Terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300.

HK/44a

Coordinates: 124.5/967.4 Description: Remains of an isolated hut floor between sites 44b and 44c surrounded by abundant flint flakes and other working debris. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300.

HK/44b

Coordinates: 124.4/967.5 Description: Remains of 4 hut floors aligned in direction W-E. The last 2 form a figure of eight, and are connected by a hearth. Near 1 of the basements, a heap of flint nuclei and nodules. Another area cleared of stones is located to the south. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, heap of stones. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300.

HK/44c

Coordinates: 124.4/967.6 Description: Remains of 5 hut floors, oval in shape, aligned in a row (N-S). Flint workshop of the Upper Palaeolithic. A disturbed alignment of stone may indicate the location of a geoglyph. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop, geoglyph (?).

HK/44d

Coordinates: 124.4/967.6 Description: In the valley at the foot of the site, 1 engraved rock. Finds: Flints include core. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: 1 rock has an engraved animal figure. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/44e

Coordinates: 124.4/967.6 Description: On the edge of the plateau, remains of an isolated, round hut floor, in the middle of a large MP flint workshop north of site 44c. Finds: Several flakes and cores are made by Levallois technique. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/45a-g

Coordinates: 124.8/967.6 Description: Remains of stone alignments and of an enclosure. Finds: Flint implements of MP, UP and BAC. A few Palaeolithic flakes have been later retouched (possibly in the BAC period). A small bifacial tool, probably a Neolithic axe, has a different patina than the rest. Periods MC: MP, UP, NEOL?, BAC. Rock Art: More than 100 engraved rocks. 2 Safaitic inscriptions (Rocks 5 and 7, Site HK/45b). On site 45d (Rock 21) there is a group of figures and ideograms having peculiar stylistic features reflecting the mentality of ideographic script. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Enclosure, inscriptions, rock art, station, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300; EA93a, p. 64; EA96b,p. 35.

HK/46

Coordinates: 125.0/967.8 Finds: Palaeolithic flints with retouching have a lighter patina. (Probably reused in the BAC Period). Periods MC: UP?, BAC. Rock Art: 10 engraved rocks. Periods RA: Mostly IV-A. Site typology: Rock art, station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 300.

HK/47a

Coordinates: 125.4/967.9 Description: Several tumuli (funerary?) in connection with rock art. Rock Art: 18 engraved rocks. Periods RA: Mostly IV-A. Site typology: Rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301; EA96b, p. 30.

HK/47b

Coordinates: 125.4/967.9 Description: Between sites 11b and 47 the hamada is rich in flakes and cores of an early phase of the Upper Palaeolithic; possibly a transition phase MP to UP (Karkomian). The abundance of good blocks of flint flakes and cores indicates that this site was a flint workshop. Finds: Abundant UP flints and cores and MP flakes of Levalloisian type. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Flint workshop.

HK/48a

Coordinates: 123.3/967.7 Description: Remains of a tumulus and other stone structures on the hilltop, including several small tumuli, presumably dating to the BAC period. One of these is next to a structure with an "apse". Finds: Upper Palaeolithic flints, some of which have secondary retouching with lighter patina likely to be BAC. Flint workshop dating to the Upper Palaeolithic period on the top of the hill. One fan scraper BAC. The tumulus was excavated during the 1999 campaign. All the internal stones were removed, while the stones of the external circumference were not touched. Under the tumulus some fragmentary bones in a state of decay were found (which have been collected). They represent the burial of an adolescent. The stones were then placed in their previous position. An anthropomorphic orthostat which was found fallen on top of the tumulus has been dressed in its original position. Periods MC: UP, BAC, ISL. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C. Site typology: Flint workshop, rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301.

HK/48b

Coordinates: 123.3/967.8 Description: 2 tumuli approximately 60 m north of site HK/48. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IVA, IVC, VII. Site typology: Rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301.

HK/49

Coordinates: 123.2/967.7 Description: In a valley halfway along the side of the hill facing west, a dark stone orthostat next to a circular stone structure. A circular stone hearth in the structure, probably a pottery oven (?). In the centre of a depression a U-shaped stone structure with many sherds. Finds: Numerous flint cores, several worked flakes (Chalcolithic or BAC) and pottery (RBY); grinding stone, workshop debris. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Fireplace, flint workshop, orthostat, oven (?), stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301.

HK/50a

Coordinates: 123.1/967.5 Description: Remains of a large encampment with alignments of stones, which probably correspond to basements of huts. It seems that fairly large human communities used this area at various stages. The remains of at least 52 structures were counted; several of which are quite complex. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, hamlet, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301.

HK/50b

Coordinates: 122.9/967.7 Description: Remains of nomadic camp with BAC flints. At least 7 structures. Periods MC: UP, BAC, RBY. Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Encampment, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301.

HK/51a

Coordinates: 123.5/967.4 Description: Remains of a courtyard structure with several rooms arranged around a central court. The entire plan is spiral-shaped. A room to the north, also in the form of a spiral, contains an orthostat and the remains of a platform, which is likely to be an altar. Finds: Flints (BAC); Pottery (BAC). A few tools were made out of Palaeolithic flakes. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Orthostat, platform (?), shrine. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301.

HK/51b

Coordinates: 123.2/967.3 Description: Remains of stone structures within an area measuring about 40 to 60 sqm. In the west of the site there is a paved platform and a small stone circle. In the eastern side of the circle there is a vertically set worked flint, as well as a naturally anthropomorphic- shaped rock which was placed there intentionally. A group of "anthropomorphic" stones. Finds: Palaeolithic flints with traces of more recent chipping, and flints of the BAC period. LP bifacial hand-axe. Periods MC: LP, BAC. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, platform, shrine. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301.

HK/52

Coordinates: 123.5/967.6 Description: Remains of stone structures on the western terrace of the wadi. There are several structures in an area about 120 m long oriented to north-south. 4 of these are of BAC type. A structure south of the site has 3 large orthostats aligned on the south-western side. Another structure on the northern side of the site clearly reveals 2 phases of construction. There is a double alignment of 12 orthostats at a central point of the site. The orthostats are in 2 tight rows (6 + 6). They are all elongated rocks whose natural shapes have not been altered and vary in height between 75 cm and 1.2 m. North of this series of 12 boulders there is an area measuring about 5x5 m, which has been intentionally cleared and is delimited by several stones, like a small courtyard. In this area at the feet of the orthostats is a small rock whose peculiar natural shape is somewhat anthropomorphic. In front, there are remains of a hearth. The area still consists of several layers of trampled earth and contains a certain number of flints and a few BAC sherds. 5 m from the standing stones are the remains of a structure which measures 4 x 1 m. It is topped by a platform which is elevated about 30 to 40 cm from the surrounding ground level. It is likely an altar. Finds: Pottery and flints. A grindstone. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, courtyard, fireplace, orthostat, shrine (?), stone alignment. Bibliography: EA85, p. 130; EA86, p. 301; EA93a, pp. 18 & 33; EA97a, pp. 101, 102 & 144; EA95, p. 15; DeD88, p. 12.

HK/53

Coordinates: 123.5/967.7 Description: On the edge of a flat, semicircular area, slightly sloped toward the wadi bed, are the remains of a stone alignment, which follow the rounded form of the plateau. At the centre is a stone-built spiral shape containing traces of a hearth with several rocks and traces of burning. Finds: A large, finely worked flint end-scraper, measuring 25 x12 cm was found between the stones. This is the largest tool found in this area dating to the Chalcolithic or BAC period. A stone pestle was also found near the hearth. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Fireplace, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 301.

HK/54

Coordinates: 123.4/967.8 Description: Remains of a spiral shrine with an orthostat and a platform. In the interior there is a circular area with traces of prolonged burning. Certain stones resemble furnace slag. Finds: Numerous blackened stones. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IVA, IVC, VI. Site typology: Fireplace, orthostat, rock art, shrine. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302; EA97a, p. 106.

HK/55

Coordinates: 123.4/967.9 Description: 3 tumuli, 1 of them "U" shaped. 1 orthostat was found in an oblique posture, it was redressed and it has a vaguely anthropomorphic shape. Finds: UP Flints with retouchings of a lighter patina. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Rock Art: 1 engraved boulder. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Orthostat, rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/56a

Coordinates: 124.3/967.7 Description: Alignment of stones and traces of geoglyphs. Finds: MP Flints. Neolithic arrow-head. Periods MC: MP, NEO. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-A, VI-VII. Site typology: Geoglyphs, rock art, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/56b

Coordinates: 124.3/967.8 Description: Stone circle and walls. A small stone structure. A large boulder with a vaguely anthropomorphic shape, is surrounded by a stone circle and has heaps of stones against 2 of its sides. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: 12 rocks with engravings. Periods RA: IV-A, V, VI. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, heap of stones, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302; EA93a, p. 34;

HK/56c

Coordinates: 124.3/967.8 Description: Along the wadi, several tumuli. On a side valley about 80 m further north, a surface cleared of stones seems to represent a horned animal, about 4 m long. Rock Art: 18 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, V, VI. Site typology: Geoglyph, rock art, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302; EA93a, p. 32 & 66; EA95, p. 14.

HK/56d

Coordinates: 124.4/968.1 Description: Remains of a Bedouin encampment. Finds: UP Flints. Periods MC: ISL. Rock Art: 13 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI Site typology: Encampment, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/56e

Coordinates: 124.5/968.0 Description: Remains of a Bedouin encampment. In the upper terrace, 6 hut floors. An orthostat or standing stone with a hole perforated in the middle. Arabic and Thamudic inscriptions. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC, ISL. Rock Art: 42 engraved rocks. Periods RA: III, IV-A, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Campsite, encampment, inscriptions, orthostat, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302; EA96b, p. 16.

HK/56f

Coordinates: 124.6/968.3 Description: Heaps of stones. A large tumulus surrounded by smaller ones. Finds: Flint implements (UP). Periods MC: UP. Rock Art: 12 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI Site typology: Heaps of stones, rock art, tumulus.

HK/56g

Coordinates: 124.7/968.3 Description: On the cliff, at the end of a little valley, a cave with a caper bush coming out of it. The cave was called "The Angel's Cave". It contained bones of birds, likely to be the remains of a meal of a predatory bird. Site typology: Cave.

HK/57

Coordinates: 124.9/967.6 Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Periods RA: Mostly IV-A. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/58

Coordinates: 124.9/967.8 Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302; EA96b, p. 41.

HK/58b

Coordinates: 124.9/967.8 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Two white, horizontal engraved rocks at the ground surface. The pictures represent a meander and an anthropomorphic figure with a solar head. Several rays around the head seem to make of this figure an "anthropomorphic sun". It is, so far, a unique figure from the area. It is likely to be Bronze Age and it could hardly be later. Periods RA: IVA. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/59a-c

Coordinates: 123.4/967.4 Description: Remains of small stone walls adjacent to site HK/51 extend across an area measuring 50 x40 m, and include the remains of at least 9 structures. Between 59a and b there are stone alignments (59c), probably remains of geoglyphs. Finds: Flints (BAC). 1 rock engraving tool with vestiges of usage. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Geoglyphs, stone alignments. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302. 75.

HK/60

Coordinates: 123.0/967.5 Description: Remains of at least 7 stone structures. A large circle constructed by an alignment of small stones encompasses 4 small piles of stones. Finds: Sporadic flint tools of Middle Palaeolithic (Mousterian, Acheulean tradition). Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock of an animal figure. Site typology: Hamlet, rock art, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302. Periods RA: IV-C.

HK/61

Coordinates: 123.2/967.1 Description: Several large rocks form a natural shelter at the confluence of 2 wadis. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flints, retouched during the BAC period. The retouching has a comparatively lighter patina. A bifacial tool is likely to be MP (Mousterian of Acheulean tradition). Periods MC: MP, BAC. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Rock art, rock shelter. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/62a

Coordinates: 123.4/967.2 Description: Remains of a dwelling site on the terrace of a lateral wadi: at least 2 phases of habitation can be distinguished. Older buildings were evidently reused and reconstructed. 6 main structures can be identified, as well as several secondary ones. An "anthropomorphic" orthostat. This site appears to be an RBY farm composed of 5 living structures and reused in the Islamic period. Despite this fact, BAC flints have been found there although no emerging building is likely to belong to that period. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Finds: Pottery fragments (RBY) Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IVC, VI, VII. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, orthostat, rock art, row of stones. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/62b

Coordinates: 123.4/967.3 Description: East of the site 62a, 2 additional stone structures and remains of agricultural terracing. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Living sites, terrace.

HK/62c

Coordinates: 123.4/967.3 Description: Further east, along the wadi, 1 additional stone structure and 3 engraved rocks. Periods MC: BAC, ISL, RBY. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks, a schematic-hunting scene. Periods RA: III, IVA, IVC, VI, VII. Site typology: Living sites, rock art.

HK/63

Coordinates: 123.9/967.8 Description: Remains of 6 stone structures, 1 larger than the others. Several circular patterns of stones can be distinguished, and may represent threshing-floors or courtyards, perhaps dating to an earlier period. Both phases are likely to be RBY. Finds: Palaeolithic flints with retouching having a lighter patina, presumably dating to the BAC period; Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: MP, BAC, RBY. Site typology: Courtyard, row. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/64a

Coordinates: 123.7/967.2 Description: Remains of several stone structures partially destroyed by rocks that have fallen over. Oval and rectangular structures of BAC type. Above, to south, on the slopes of the mountain, an oval structure with orthostats. Below, near the wadi, enclosures, terraces and agricultural structures made of large boulders, of the BAC period. To the eastern area are heaps of stones, likely to be a graveyard. Traces of geoglyphs. On the opposite side of the wadi there is a flint quarry which is likely to have been source for some of the flint figurines at HK/86b. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Courtyard, enclosures, geoglyphs, heap of stones, orthostats, quarry, terrace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/64b

Coordinates: 123.6/967.0 Description: An "anthropomorphic" stone surrounded by alignments of stones. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, stone alignment. Bibliography: EA93a, pp. 40 & 41; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/64c

Coordinates: 123.7/966.9 Description: 3 engraved stones. In the vicinity, a trapezoidal shape made of aligned large boulders. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Geoglyph, rock art.

HK/64d

Coordinates: 123.8/966.8 Description: A small cave partially closed by a wall in the Islamic period. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Cave.

HK/65a

Coordinates: 123.1/966.9 Description: 5 stone dwelling units aligned along the western terrace of a small wadi. 2 of the structures of BAC type were partially reconstructed and reutilised. Some 50 m to the west, a small group of stone circles with orthostats. 40 m to the southeast, geometric geoglyphs. Periods MC: BAC, RBY. Site typology: Courtyard, geoglyphs, living sites-other, orthostats, stone circles. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/65b

Coordinates: 123.0/966.7 Description: Several heaps of stones on a large terrace of a small lateral wadi. An orthostat having cut marks on its top. Site typology: Heaps of stones, orthostat.

HK/65c

Coordinates: 122.8/966.7 Description: Inside a natural amphitheatre, near the source of the wadi, there are several natural rock shelters. The larger one measures 7 x2 m. A small wall constructed with stone and mud delimit 4 semicircular cavities. To the south of the wadi, along the mountain's trail, there is an anthropomorphic-shaped stone and a large flint scraper at its side (BAC). In the main shelter a large oval slab shaped by man was reused as part of the closing wall of the Islamic structure. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, rock shelter, slab.

HK/65d

Coordinates: 123.3/967.0 Description: A large stone circle with "zoomorphic" and "anthropomorphic" stones. The site has several other smaller stone circles and alignments of stones also exist. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: "Anthropo-zoomorphic" stones, stone alignments, stone circles.

HK/66

Coordinates: 123.4/966.7 Description: There are several natural rock shelters halfway along the mountainside, 2 of which have remains of closing walls. 1 of these rock shelters, about 3 m deep and 4 m wide, could have sheltered a number of people. The second rock shelter, measuring about 1.5 x2 m, looks like a storage space. The low walls are made of flat stones and packed earth, and presumably belong to the Islamic period. Further north, 2 more dwelling shelters were found. The first is a natural shelter measuring 8 x3 m, and contains recently deposited animal faeces. The second, is a rock shelter that boasts a small man- made groove that would have functioned in gathering water droplets. Starting from the base of the steep trail, the site is located at the first bend after the third promontory. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Rock shelters. Bibliography: EA86, p. 302.

HK/67

Coordinates: 123.4/966.5 Description: The trail appears to be partially carved out of the rock. This is a clearly shaped route up to the mountain, also used in recent times, as demonstrated by the presence of camel and mule droppings. The cuts, made in the rock to render the path more accessible, are worn and look old. Along the trail there is a quarry of tabular flint emerging from white sediments in horizontal lines. Finds: Several flakes, probably BAC. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Quarry. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/68a

Coordinates: 123.3/966.3 Description: Remains of at least 8 piles of stones on the eastern terrace of the wadi, at the foot of a precipice about 50 m high. The site looks like a burial ground. A landslide, probably recent, has fallen on top of some structures. Next to the structures there are several waterholes (gevim) partially destroyed by floods. Site typology: Burial ground (?), heaps of stone, tumuli, water holes. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/68b

Coordinates: 123.2/966.3 Description: 3 small natural shelters each measuring about 3 m wide x 1 m deep. Closing walls are constructed with mud and stone. Finds: In a small ravine, 3 pieces of worked wood (probably the remains of a camel harness). Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Rock shelters.

HK/68c

Coordinates: 123.3/966.4 Description: On the west terrace of the wadi, there are several stone built structures. An oval-shaped platform measuring about 5.5 m in diameter contained 5 small stone circles each measuring 1 m in diameter and each containing numerous flint chips. Nearby, 8 additional stone circles with the same size lack flint chips. An irregular rectangular structure (4 x1.5 m), has a large concentration of chipped flint at its base. Adjacent is a stone built enclosure (6 x4 m). There is a passageway between the two. In the middle of the barrow, a worked monolith rises up 35 cms. Remains of geometric geoglyphs (pebble drawings). Finds: Large fan scraper; flints; coal; wood. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Enclosure, geoglyph, platform, stone circle.

HK/68d

Coordinates: 123.0/966.4 Description: A natural layer of tabular flint and nearby, a large flake chipped for the manufacturing of a scraper (BAC). Again, in close proximity, there are several natural shelters; 2 are constructed with small Bedouin walls. Periods MC: BAC, ISL Site typology: Quarry, rock shelter.

HK/69

Coordinates: 123.3/966.2 Description: 2 small natural rock shelters, closed by low man-made walls, are located on the cliff above site HK/68. 1 of these reveals 3 phases of construction, the first likely to be old (BAC?); the others are more recent. Fragments of Islamic Gaza type pottery show that they have been used in recent times. There are also fragments of Byzantine pottery and worked flints of the BAC type. Next to these small rock shelters there are several natural waterholes in the rock (gevim), 1 of which still contained a trace of water in the middle of May 1983. 40 m south and 15 m higher up, there is a circular stone structure measuring approximately 20 m in diameter, with Roman-Byzantine pottery; it is likely to be an animal pen. A standing stone was intentionally given an oval shape (is chipped all around). Near it is a grindstone. Finds: Grindstone and flint standing stone. Periods MC: BAC, RBY, ISL. Site typology: Enclosure, orthostat, rock shelter, waterholes. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/70

Coordinates: 123.5/966.4 Description: Large rock shelter with an opening 15 m wide and 6-7 m deep. It is the largest rock shelter yet found on the mountain. Next to it there are several waterholes which have small artificial canals encompassing them to collect water. In another shelter nearby small flint bladelets were found, probably Neolithic. There is a small cave on the side. At the entrance, Neolithic flints were found. Finds: Flints dating to the Middle Palaeolithic period. A few clothes hidden behind a plastic container reveal that the rock shelter has been used recently. The Neolithic flakes have a very light patina. Periods MC: MP, NEOL, ISL. Site typology: Canal, cave, rock shelter, water holes. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/71a

Coordinates: 123.6/966.7 Description: Remains of 7 hut floors, aligned in direction NW-SE, with a large oval area cleared of stones (20x14 m in size) in the middle, 4 small, irregularly shaped hut floors NW, and 3 round hut floors (3 m in diameter) SE. A trail connects some huts. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic and BAC period. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/71b

Coordinates: 123.6/966.7 Description: On south of the site 71a, there are 4 small, round hut floors (2-3.5 m in size, respectively) and a flint workshop. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA95, p. 10.

HK/71c

Coordinates: 123.7/966.6 Description: 30 metres south of site 70, along the edge of the mountain, there is a geological formation of large, oval bulbs and a flint workshop of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Middle Palaeolithic flints were also found at the site. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Flint workshop.

HK/72a

Coordinates: 123.7/966.7 Description: Remains of 3 round hut floors of about 3 m in diameter, in an E-W alignment. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period, including Aterian-points and BAC. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/72b

Coordinates: 123.7/966.8 Description: Remains of 5 small, oval-shaped hut floors in a NE-SW alignment. The site is placed between 2 outcrops of round limestone. Near the huts were 2 flint workshops: 1 of them produced large flint implements, the other, tools of smaller size. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic (one with anthropomorphic shape) and BAC period. At least 3 grinding stones. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/72c

Coordinates: 123.8/966.6 Description: Remains of 4 huts in a NE-SW alignment. The central hut is oval-shaped and larger than the others which are (3.5x2.0 m). Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic periods. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/72d

Coordinates: 123.8/966.6 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors and a hearth between 2 huts. The central hut is oval-shaped and larger than the others (3.3x2.0 m). Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic a few of them have secondary retouching of BAC period. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace.

HK/72e

Coordinates: 123.7/966.6 Description: Palaeolithic site with 6 hut floors and a hearth. The hut floors are small and round. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic, a few of them have secondary retouching of BAC period. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace. 117. HK/72fCoordinates: 123.6/966.5 Description: Palaeolithic site with 4 hut floors and a flint workshop. The huts are small and round. The largest is about 4 m in diameter. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/73a

Coordinates: 125.0/966.3 Description: Remains of 7 hut floors with 1 larger than the others in the middle (about 4 m). Around the site are several stone circles with "anthropomorphic" stones and 3 hearths near the 2 largest huts. A trail crosses the site in an E-W direction. Finds: Early Upper Palaeolithic flints (Karkomian). Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplaces. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/73b

Coordinates: 125.0/966.3 Description: Palaeolithic site (early Upper Palaeolithic) with 6 oval hut floors, 3 of which are larger than the others. Periods MC: UP (Karkomian). Site typology: Campsite.

HK/73c

Coordinates: 125.0/966.3 Description: Remains of 3 round oval hut floors (early Upper Palaeolithic) the largest is 7.2x5.2 m 4 hearths, 1 of them in the centre of the site. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace.

HK/74a

Coordinates: 125.2/966.3 Description: Remains of 10 hut floors, 7 out of which in a circle. A path crosses the site in a N-S direction. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Several flint implements of the Levallois technique. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/74b

Coordinates: 125.2/966.3 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors, 1 of which is very large, oval, measuring about 6x3.2 m. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/74c

Coordinates: 125.3/966.2 Description: Palaeolithic site with nine round hut floors, connected by 2 trails crossing in the centre of the site. Finds: Flints of the early Upper Palaeolithic (Karkomian) period, of Mousterian tradition. 1 BAC flint. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/74d

Coordinates: 125.2/966.1 Description: Palaeolithic site with 3 round hut floors crossed by a path. A flint workshop and a hearth surrounded by the huts. Finds: Flints of the early Upper Palaeolithic (Karkomian) period, of Mousterian tradition. Some flints with less patinated retouchings likely to belong to the BAC period. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, flint workshop.

HK/74e

Coordinates: 126.1/966.1 Description: Remains of 3 round hut floors in a row. A smaller area cleared of stones in relation with a flint workshop. A stone circle (hearth?) near the site. Finds: Flints of the early Upper Palaeolithic (Karkomian). Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace, flint workshop.

HK/75a

Coordinates: 125.0/966.0 Description: Remains of 9 round hut floors, 3 of which are large (diameter 5 m). A circle of stones inside a large hut is probably a hearth. A trail connects 2 of the larger huts. Finds: Early Upper Palaeolithic site. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/75b

Coordinates: 125.0/966.0five Description: Palaeolithic site with 5 round hut floors, 2 of them larger than the others (>5 m). A trail leads to one of the largest huts. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/75c

Coordinates: 125.1/966.0 Description: Palaeolithic site with 4 hut floors with round or oval shape, 2 of them larger than the others (>5 m). Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic and some tools have secondary retouching from the BAC period, Upper Palaeolithic. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/75d

Coordinates: 125.1/965.9 Description: Remains of 2 round hut floors, a stone circle (hearth?). Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace (?), stone circle.

HK/75e

Coordinates: 125.2/965.9 Description: Large Palaeolithic site with 15 round hut floors of which 2 in the centre are larger, (diameter 4.5 m), and a hearth. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic and some tools have secondary retouching from the BAC period. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace.

HK/75f

Coordinates: 125.3/965.9 Description: Palaeolithic site with 6 round hut floors: the huts are disposed in a circle with 1 in the centre. Near a hut there are some "anthropomorphic" stones. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic periods. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, campsites.

HK/75g

Coordinates: 125.4/965.9 Description: Remains of 4 oval-shaped hut floors, a hearth. Flint nodules scattered over the whole surface like those of the site 86b. Finds: Large flint nodules of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Flint implements of the Upper Palaeolithic, some tools have secondary retouching from the BAC period. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace.

HK/75h

Coordinates: 125.2/965.9 Description: Remains of 2 hut floors of which 1 is very large oval-shaped (6x3.2 m). A hearth. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic, some tools have secondary retouching from the BAC period. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace.

HK/76a

Coordinates: 124.8/965.6 Description: Remains of 7 hut floors with oval-round shape, in a NW-SE alignment. The largest hut is on S (6,5x4 m). Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/76b

Coordinates: 124.7/965.6 Description: A group of 7 small, round hut floors, 5 of them are in alignment NW-SE along a path on the edge of a ravine precipice. Some smaller areas cleared of stones around the huts. 20 m NW from the first hut, a group of 5 pierced stones. 50 m to the NW, remains of a circular enclosure and a private shrine with a standing stone with two artificially engraved cups. Some 50m to the south, an engraved rock. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic, Upper Palaeolithic and Neolithic period. 3 phases are evident: 1) MP phase, with darker patina: some splinters; 2) Early Upper Palaeolithic phase: a graver and some splinters; 1 of the pierced stones shows an intentional enlargement of the hole; 3) Neolithic phase, with lighter patina: arrowheads and blades. Periods MC: MP, UP, NEO. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/76c

Coordinates: 124.9/965.7 Description: Palaeolithic site with a large shamrock-shaped hut, about 12x11x4.50 m. At 23 m, 2 small round hut floors. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic, Upper Palaeolithic and some tools have secondary retouching from the BAC period. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 62.

HK/77a

Coordinates: 125.5/965.8 Description: A group of 5 hut floors and 4 smaller areas cleared of stones around a hut. A trail crosses the site in direction E-NW. On top of a hill, a flint workshop on W. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic, Upper Palaeolithic and some tools have secondary retouching from the BAC period. A chopping tool with BAC retouching. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/77b

Coordinates: 125.5/965.8 Description: Remains of 6 hut floors, 5 of which in a circle, with a hearth in the centre. This site is connected to site 75g by trails. Finds: Flint nodules around and inside the huts. Flint implements. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace.

HK/77c

Coordinates: 125.6/965.9 Description: Remains of 5 round-oval hut floors. At 100 m a large flint workshop with large flint nodules, out of which 1 has been intentionally retouched (BAC?). A path surrounds the site. Finds: Flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period, Early Upper Palaeolithic phase, and some tools have secondary retouching from the BAC period. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/77d

Coordinates: 125.7/965.8 Description: Remains of 5 hut floors of which 1 larger, oval-shaped (6.x2.5 m), the other huts being round. Near the site there is a flint quarry and a workshop with large nodules. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic, Upper Palaeolithic, Neolithic and BAC periods. Periods MC: MP, UP, NEO, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, flint quarry, flint workshop.

HK/77e

Coordinates: 125.7/965.7 Description: Flint workshop on a top of a hill. Site typology: Flint workshop.

HK/78a

Coordinates: 125.6/965.5 Rock Art: Along the wadi 5 engraved rocks with thin incisions. Periods RA: IV/A, IV/C, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/78b

Coordinates: 125.5/965.5 Description: A small area cleared of stones in the middle of a large flint workshop of Upper Palaeolithic period. Finds: Flint cores and flakes of early phase of Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Flint workshop.

HK/79a

Coordinates: 125.6/965.4 Description: Stone circle, approximately 7 m in diameter. Various stones, which are part of the circle, as well as several stones nearby are covered with rock engravings. Finds: Flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period and Byzantine pottery. Periods MC: MP, RBY. Rock Art: 11 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 303.

HK/79b

Coordinates: 125.7/965.4 Description: Remains of a semicircular wall with an orthostat at the centre. Below, 2 enclosures with signs of reconstruction and reutilisation. Periods MC: BAC (?), RBY. Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks. Periods RA: I, IV-C, VI. Site typology: Enclosures, orthostat, rock art. Bibliography: EA85, p. 130; EA86, p. 304; EA96b, p. 19.

HK/79c

Coordinates: 125.6/965.3 Description: Remains of a nomadic camping site. Heaps of stones. Finds: Small flint flakes, likely to be post-Palaeolithic. Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, VI, VII. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stones.

HK/80

Coordinates: 125.6/965.2 Description: Group of small heaps of stones, probably an Islamic cemetery (?). Periods MC: ISL?. Site typology: Heaps of stones. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304. HK /81aCoordinates: 125.7/965.1 Description: Flat slab, artificially rounded on the upper portion, leans obliquely against 2 stones. The ensemble rests on a stone base and appears as a cyst grave. Site typology: Slab. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/81b

Coordinates: 125.7/965.1 Description: On the slope of a hill, on a terrace facing west, 9 hut floors on 2 different levels. A circle of flat stones around one of the huts. On the opposite side, a path connects 2 huts and there are 2 smaller areas cleared of stone, in relation with a flint workshop. Finds: Flints of the Lower Palaeolithic, Middle Palaeolithic and one with a BAC retouched flake. Periods MC: LP, MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop, stone circle.

HK/81c

Coordinates: 125.6/965.0 Description: On a terrace of the mountain, 2 hut floors and a smaller area cleared of stones, near a flint workshop. Finds: Flints of the Lower Palaeolithic, Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic. Periods MC: LP, MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/81d

Coordinates: 125.5/965.0 Description: Some 100 m W of site HK/81c, an isolated round hut floor. It is on the slope of the mountain, 50 m from the ravine border, along a small natural rock terrace. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/82a

Coordinates: 125.8/964.9 Description: Remains of 2 small hut floors. Finds: Concentration of flint implements of the Middle Palaeolithic; many of the Levallois technique. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/82b

Coordinates: 125.8/964.9 Description: Remains of 6 hut floors. A stone structure and a fireplace near the hut. Finds: Middle Palaeolithic flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 70.

HK/83a

Coordinates: 125.9/965.2 Description: An isolated, round hut floor with a hearth outside the hut. Finds: Lower Palaeolithic, Early Upper Palaeolithic flints and Karkomian flints. Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/83b

Coordinates: 125.9/965.4 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors. 1 is oval shaped and larger than the others. Finds: Lower Palaeolithic flints, including 3 hand-axes. Middle Palaeolithic flints were also found. Periods MC: LP, MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/83c

Coordinates: 125.9/965.3 Description: Remains of 5 hut floors spread on a line N-S. Finds: Flint tools of Lower Palaeolithic and Middle Palaeolithic, Mousterian of Acheulean tradition. Periods MC: LP, MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/83d

Coordinates: 125.8/965.3 Description: Remains of a hut floor and 5 smaller areas cleared of stones, in the middle of a large flint workshop (100 x200 m). Finds: LP tools and flakes imbedded in the ground. Some of them have UP retouching. Periods MC: LP, UP. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop.

HK/84

Coordinates: 125.9/965.5 Finds: Worked flints of the Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/85

Coordinates: 126. 1/965.9 Description: Nawamis tumulus constructed with flat stones; it is preserved up to a height of approximately 1.5 m on the edge of the precipice. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/86a

Coordinates: 126.3/966.7 Description: Remains of 12 hut floors. In the vicinity, several heaps of stones. Finds: Flints of Middle Palaeolithic and Upper Palaeolithic (Karkomian) periods. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stone. Bibliography EA86, p. 304

HK/86b

Coordinates: 126.4/966.7 Description: Group of standing flint boulders with natural anthropomorphic shapes between 0.60 and 1. 15 m high. Several other such boulders are fallen, in an area of about 40x20 m ("Palaeolithic Sanctuary"). Finds: Several smaller such natural figurines are on the ground. Most of them have been retouched by flaking. Flints from the early Upper Palaeolithic (Karkomian). Periods MC: UP. Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IVA, IVC, VI. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, rock art. Bibliography: BAR 1992; EA93a, pp. 81, 82, 84-88, 90 & 91; EA96a p. 27; EA97a, pp. 100, 254 & 255; EA95, pp. 13 & 14; EA97b, p. 20.

HK/87a-b

Coordinates: 126.5/967.2 Description: An unusually-shaped tumulus, measuring approximately 4m x 5.5 m, faces the Paran desert. On excavation, two different layers became apparent. The top half consisted of smaller stones. Beneath these (approximately 3 feet lower) were larger stones (weighing 70-80 kilos) which had been intentionally filled with silt. On top of the tumulus was a hollow stone filled with small pebbles. Within the tumulus, a light coloured stone was found with a shape of half circle which was done by chipping. The moon-like stone, 60 cm in lenght and weighing about 40 Kg was lying on a black rectangular stone. Near to it there was a large fan scraper and traces of fire. In the surroundings (HK/87b) several heaps of stones, 1 large, oval hut floor and a few areas cleared of stones around it. Near the site, just below the edge of the precipice, is a cave which is difficult to access. Finds: HK/87a: blades; bones; lunette stone; scraper; fragments of scrapers (BAC). HK/87b: abundant worked flints of the Upper Palaeolithic with MP tradition (Karkomian). Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite, cave, tumulus. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/88a

Coordinates: 126.1/967.1 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors oval in shape. 2 trails connect the site with site 88b. A hearth is located on the east side of a hut. Finds: Palaeolithic worked flints. Periods MC: LP, MP. Site typology: Campsite, fireplace. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/88b

Coordinates: 126.2/967.2 Description: Remains of 3 hut floors. Finds: Flint implements of the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic period. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/89

Coordinates: 125.8/967.6 Description: 4 small stone circles and 2 stones with naturally anthropomorphic-shaped faces. Finds: Palaeolithic worked flints with traces of retouching and a lighter patina (BAC) indicates reutilization. Periods MC: PAL (?), BAC. Site typology: Anthropomophric stones, stone circle. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/90a

Coordinates: 125.5/967.6 Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: Mostly IV-A. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/90b

Coordinates: 125.6/967.5 Description: 4 piles of stones, probably funerary tumuli. The diameter of each tumulus is about 2 m. 3 orthostats are in proximity of a tumulus. Site typology: Orthostats, tumuli. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/91a-b

Coordinates: 125.4/967.4 Description: Rock art site. Finds: 35 m north, a long and well retouched UP blade (HK/91b). Periods MC: UP. Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks. Periods RA: V, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/92

Coordinates: 124.6/967.2 Description: Natural waterholes (gevim) in the bed of the wadi, one of which contained about 2 cubic meters of water on May 14, 1983 and 18 cubic meters of water on May 14, 1984. 20 m above, there are 2 small rock shelters showing traces of usage. On the edge of the precipice a small cave with Islamic pottery. This waterhole, on May 14, 1984 would have required 20% more water (2.5 cubic m) to overflow; this would have produced a waterfall from the mountain into the western valley below. Such phenomenon often happens after rain and has been recorded twice since 1984. Finds: Palaeolithic flints. BAC flints and an animal bone (of an antelope?). Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC. Rock Art: South of the wadi, 4 engraved rocks. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Cave, rock art, rock shelter, waterhole. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/93a

Coordinates: 124.6/967.5 Description: In the middle of the central promontory, 3 hut floors are aligned in a row in a N-S direction and are connected by a path. Middle Palaeolithic site. Finds: BAC Flint; Worked flints of the Middle Palaeolithic period. Some 40 m to the south, an LP chopping tool. 30 m north, below the cliff, an Acheulean hand-axe. Periods MC: LP,MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/93b

Coordinates: 124.5/967.5 Description: Flint workshop with numerous fan scrapers from the BAC period. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Flint workshop. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/93c

Coordinates: 124.6/967.6 Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: V,VI mostly. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/94

Coordinates: 123.9/968.7 Finds: Flint tools from the Middle Palaeolithic period. Numerous cores suggest that this was a flint workshop. Periods MC: MP. Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks. Periods RA: Mostly IV-A. Site typology: Flint workshop, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/95

Coordinates: 123.9/968.6 Description: A pile of stones, as well as scattered stones, perhaps the remains of a bivouac. Traces of an ancient trail that could lead to the mountain. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-A, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art, station. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304.

HK/96

Coordinates: 123.9/968.5 Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks with schematic symbols and a scene depicting an ibex-hunt with dogs (IV-A). Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Bibliography: EA86, p. 304; EA93a, p. 31.

HK/97

Coordinates: 124.0/968.6 Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks; several linear signs next to a footprint are noteworthy. Several animal figures. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/98

Coordinates: 124.1/968.5 Description: Flint quarry with a Palaeolithic flint workshop. Rock Art: 4 engraved rocks. Hunting scene on horseback period V. Numerous signs and symbols. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Flint workshop, quarry, rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.

HK/99

Coordinates: 124.2/968.6 Rock Art: 5 engraved rocks. 1 of these has 3 phases of engravings: a scene of human figures with large hands, an ibex from period IV-A; figures of ibex from period IV-C; Bedouin wassum from period VII. This site is characterised by crevices. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VII. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography: EA86, p. 305.
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Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).


Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links


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