Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
Articles
Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

In the Bronze Age most of the rock art was a matter of cult


Video on Demand
Mount Sinai has been found.
 



HAR KARKOM SITES 300-399

HK/300

Coordinates: 129.3/962.3 Description: Remains of campsites on the flat top of a hill. There are 3 groups, respectively 2, 3 and 4 hut floors of MP pattern. Finds: Sporadic flints. Periods MC: MP?. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/301a

Coordinates: 124.5/962.2 Description: On the extreme southern peak of the Karkom appendix, 4 built platforms, with a wall 60-80cm high and composed by 3 rows of large stones. These platforms are filled in with smaller stones and are flat on top. They do not look like standard tumuli. They are based upon circles of flat stones visible all around forming a sort of basement 30-40cm larger than the structure itself. On top of each platform, the stones show signs of very strong burning and are in a state of complete erosion. In places they turned into concrete. This isolated peak has a very broad landscape. It dominates the eastern side of this site, there is the entire Paran desert and on the western side, the central Sinai: a unique topographical situation with a bird's eye view of the landscape. 202 m northwest there is a heap of stones which appears as modern and may be a topographical triangulation point. Near the internment platform, a small circle of stones is likely to mark the emplacement of a fireplace. Finds: Sporadic BAC flints and 2 semi-fossilised bones. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Fireplace(?), heaps of stones, platforms. Bibliography: EA87, p. 21; EA88a, p. 115; EA93a, pp. 49 & 50; EA97a, p. 119.

HK/301b

Coordinates: 124.4/962.2 Description: A hut floor and Palaeolithic flint flakes. Finds: Flint flakes (PAL). Site typology: Campsite.

HK/301c

Coordinates: 124.5/961.9 Description: Remains of a large Palaeolithic campsite with numerous flint flakes and remains of at least 10 hut floors. This site has an immense landscape and is totally exposed. Finds: Palaeolithic flints. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/301d

Coordinates: 124.8/961.3 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock, with a vulvar ideogram. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/301e

Coordinates: 125.0/961.4 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock with a wasm. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/301f

Coordinates: 125.0/961.5 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. A man with a sword. Periods RA: V. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/301g

Coordinates: 124.8/961.8 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock with two horsemen. Periods RA: V. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/302a

Coordinates: 124.5/962.4 Description: 4 aligned hut floors at the edge of the hill. In the northern valley near this site several remains of hut floors. Finds: Flint flakes. Period MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/302b

Coordinates: 124.4/962.5 Description: 2 hut floors. Finds Flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/302c

Coordinates: 124.0/962.4 Description: Concentration of flint flakes, probably remains of a Palaeolithic station. Finds: Palaeolithic flakes. BAC point 50 m north. Periods MC: MP, BAC. Site typology: Station.

HK/302d

Coordinates: 124.4/962.4 Description: 2 hut floors and Palaeolithic flint flakes. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/303

Coordinates: 127.5/960.3 Description: Remains of a large and well-preserved plaza site with an enclosure in diameter of about 50 x 40 m, includes 4 living structures and several other structures. Several piles of stones southeast. Site typology: Enclosure, heaps of stones, plaza. Bibliography: EA87, pp. 210 & 213.

HK/304

Coordinates: 128.2/964.4 Description: A group of hut floors of which 5 are organised in semicircles and 7 more are aligned. Site typology: Campsite. Bibliography: EA87, p. 33.

HK/305

Coordinates: 128.7/964.6 Description: 7 hut floors arranged in a semicircle. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/306

Coordinates: 129.0/965.2 Description: 9 aligned hut floors. Concentrated around them near each other are 10 more and 3 heaps of stones are spread over the hill. Site typology: Campsite, heaps of stones.

HK/307

Coordinates: 121.4/967.3 Description: A circle of at least 14 heaps of stones whose diameter is about 45 m. Smaller piles of stones inside the circle. The site is located on the slope of a broad hamada between the main wadi and the lateral one. Plaza of small tumuli often connected by walls. 50 m north, 3 large tumuli, 1 is rectangular (3 x 4 m) built of large standing stones. These tumuli are not of the same construction as the plaza tumuli. 20 m east of the circle, an alignment of orthostats, 2 of which are still standing. Finds: Flints (BAC, MP); ochre and clay stones. Site typology: Heaps of stone, orthostat, plaza, stone alignment, tumuli. Bibliography: EA87, pp. 33 & 135.

HK/308

Coordinates: 122.7/961.3 Description: 10 structures forming a circle (9 heaps of stones with a diameter of 2 m, and a larger one, which could be a living structure). Site situated in a large plain from which it is possible to see the south of Har Karkom and the top of site HK/301. Finds: Few BAC flints and UP (or MP?, not sure). Periods MC: UP, MP?, BAC. Site typology: Heaps of stones, plaza. Bibliography: EA87, pp. 33 & 145.

HK/309

Coordinates: 124.0/962.4 Description: 3 hut floors and large quantities of flaked flint of Palaeolithic type. Finds: Palaeolithic flints. Fan scraper (BAC). Periods MC: PAL, BAC. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/309b

Coordinates: 124.3/962.4 Description: 2 hut floors and abundant Palaeolithic flints. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/310a

Coordinates: 121.4/962.7 Description: Large plaza site which has been rebuilt twice; the early phase is rather small and has only remains of piles of stones, the second phase has 11-12 larger structures and 3 wall segments, each wall in between 2 structures. 4-5 of the structures may have been dwelling units; the others appear to be too small. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Plaza. Bibliography: EA87, pp. 33 & 150.

HK/310b

Coordinates: 121.3/962.7 Description: A well-preserved courtyard site. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Courtyard. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 43.

HK/310c

Coordinates: 121.3/962.8 Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Engravings with old patina naturally anthropomorphic shaped stone. A natural crack has been completed to shape an animal head. Periods RA: I,IV-A, VI, VII. Site typology: Anthropo-zoomorphic stone, rock art.

HK/311

Coordinates: 122.3/961.4 Description: 3 tumuli. Finds: Flint implements. Flakes with BAC retouching. Site typology: Tumuli.

HK/312

Coordinates: 122.2/962.2 Description: Courtyard sites of BAC type, 2 large courtyards with remains of rooms built along the perimeter. 1 oval structure is partly overlapping the previous walls and have been added later. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Courtyard.

HK/312b

Coordinates: 122.2/962.1 Description: At least 6 heaps of stones likely to be a burial place. Site typology: Heaps of stones.

HK/313

Coordinates: 122.1/960.4 Description: Remains of 2 enclosures built in 2 different periods: the earliest one has a large room attached to its perimeter, the more recent one is oval and divided in 2 by a central wall. 60 m west, there is a group of at least 5 hut floors (PAL). Periods MC: UB, BAC, ISL. Site typology: Campsite, courtyard, enclosure.

HK/314

Coordinates: 122.7/960.6 Description: A series of 12-13 small circles cleared of stones. Together they form an elongated oval shape (nearly 100 x 25 m). Site typology: Stone circles.

HK/315

Coordinates: 127.4/961.3 Description: A group of 8 hut floors. 6 are organised in a row of 3 pairs. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/316

Coordinates: 129.8/968.0 Description: A circle of 12 small heaps of stone form a plaza. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC, IV-C. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock with inscription. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stones, inscription, plaza, rock art. Bibliography: EA87, pp. 21 & 159.

HK/317

Coordinates: 122.8/967.6 Description: Large rock shelter halfway up the mountain slope. It measures 37 m long and 5 m deep and contains several stone structures. Among them is a well preserved stone-built storeroom (ISL); toward the base of the shelter is a stone circle with a diameter of 3.5 m Besides the large shelter is a smaller shelter with a storeroom constructed of dry stone (ISL). The slope below yielded LP and BAC flints. 30 m north, close to the terrace, is a structure made of mud and stone, 3 m x 1.4 m (ISL). Also remains of a low wall and in the little side wadi agricultural terracing. The entire site is covered by compressed and stratified dung. Finds: Flint; Pottery. While the LP flints may have fallen down from the terrace, the recovery of BAC flints in the immediate surroundings of the shelter, may indicate that it was also visited in the BAC period. 2 small soundings of m 1.00x0.50 revealed the following stratigraphy: Sounding I: (Inside the circle of stones) The stratum of dung from an area of m 1x5 has been removed. In the sounding the remains of a hearth was found. A thin sandy layer separates 2 layers of dung. The third stratum consists of fine straw that has been intertwined, achieving a thickness of approximately 2 cm. The following stratum is composed of dung and mud with stones. All the deposits here are likely to be quite recent. The fifth stratum is composed of sterile sediment, which consists of fine strongly compressed aeolian material. This stratum varies in thickness between 3cm and 9cm and rests on the rock. No findings of material culture. Sounding II: (Near the circle of stones) Stratum of dung resting on a stratum of chalky stones probably the result of a landslide. Under these strata are the remains of a hearth that has been hardened by coal intermingled with calcareous insertions. The traces indicate a compact concrete, practically fossilised, grey-bluish concave level. It is likely to be quite old. A sample of the hearth has been removed for analysis. Periods MC: LP, BAC, ISL. Site typology: Fireplace, rock shelter, storage shelter, terrace. Bibliography: EA93a, p. 52.

HK/318

Coordinates: 122.8/967.8 Description: On the top of the mountain between sites HK/317 and HK/159b, a flint workshop with flint cores and BAC retouched flakes. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Flint workshop.

HK/319

Coordinates: 122.7/967.9 Description: Natural shelter with remains of Islamic construction in the form of a small wall. There is another natural rock shelter with a stone-built wall delimiting a storeroom. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Storage shelter.

HK/320

Coordinates: 122.6/967.7 Description: Outcrop of a flint stratum and a cutting work shop. Cores and worked flints are found for about 300 m along the slope. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Site typology: Flint workshop, quarry.

HK/ 321

Coordinates: 122.4/967.5 Description: Outcrop of a flint stratum and traces of manufacture recognised by numerous cores and flakes. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Flint workshop, quarry.

HK/322

Coordinates: 122.4/ 967.2 Description: A cutting work shop along the outcrop of a stratum of flint. Finds: Flint. Periods MC: MP, UP. Site typology: Flint workshop, quarry.

HK/323

Coordinates: 122.4/966.8 Description: Flint work shop, producing fan scrapers and flakes. Outcrop of 2 strata of flint a short distance from one another. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Flint workshop, quarry.

HK/324

Coordinates: 126.4/960.6 Rock Art: 7 engraved rocks. Periods RA: V, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/325a

Coordinates: 127.3/961.1 Periods MC: RBY, ISL. Rock Art: Rock engravings from have Roman-Byzantine and Islamic times. Periods RA: V, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/325b

Coordinates: 127.4/960.5 Rock Art: Rock engravings from Islamic times. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/ 326

Coordinates: 127.4/961.6 Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: ISL. Rock Art: About 30 engraved rocks. Periods R.A: IV-C, VI, and VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/327

Coordinates: 122.2/960.4 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment, nearby several heaps of stones. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/328

Coordinates: 122.1/960.7 Description: Several anthropomorphic-shaped stones that have been intentionally placed in prominent locations. At the base of 1, there are remains of a hearth. Along the side of the rock is evidence of recent lamp-black. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, fireplace.

HK/329

Coordinates: 120.9/961.2 Description: Stone circles and barrows of various dimensions, probably a funerary ground. In each heap there are anthropomorphic-shaped stones intentionally placed in prominent positions. Some show traces of retouch. In several of them a couple of man-made cup marks indicate the eyes. Finds: Atypical flints. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stones, heaps of stones, stone circle, tumuli.

HK/330

Coordinates: 124.1/967.5 Description: Halfway up the rocky ridge of Har Karkom, under a silhouette known as "the Sphinx" there are some small rock shelters with remains of a bivouac and traces of a hearth and storage shelter. Site typology: Encampment, fireplace, rock art.

HK/331

Coordinates: 122.6/969.3 Description: A group of 7 rounded structures on the slope by the side of a ravine. Around, there are several tumuli in prominent positions and 2 large circular enclosures of stones. Several peculiar heaps of stone possibly functioning as hiding places. Commanding the view of the entire valley, this site is a possible military post. Finds: Flint work shop (UP), Flint cores. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Enclosure, flint workshop, heaps of stone, military post, tumuli.

HK/332

Coordinates: 126.4/967.6 Description: Large cave with a small entrance located about 6 m down a steep cliff. It appears to have been inhabited during different periods. A round, rolling stone was located nearby. Finds: Flints of the Middle and Upper Palaeolithic periods. BAC habitation levels with pottery, flints, bone tools and animal bones. Pottery (ISL), 2 round, flat stones. Hand-worked implements of limestone: a hammerstone, a circular disk, and a square-shaped stone. Fossilised bones and 1 rodent tooth. Outside the cave: UP and BAC flints. Periods MC: MP, UP, BAC, ISL. Site typology: Cave. Bibliography: EA93a, pp. 12 & 13; EA96c, p. 19; EA95, pp. 10 & 12; EA97b, p. 21.

HK/333

Coordinates: 126.6/968.1 Description: A large enclosure built of stones with adjacent chamber. A pastoral station (ISL). Finds: Pottery Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment, enclosure.

HK/334

Coordinates: 126.7/967.8 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment with heaps of stones and low walls. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/334b

Coordinates: 126.8/967.9 Description: Some stone structures at the centre of a saddle: a standing stone is surrounded by a small stone circle (private shrine) and some heaps of stones. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: MP, UP and BAC. Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A. Site typology: Heaps of stones, orthostat, rock art, shrine.

HK/334c

Coordinates: 127.1/967.9 Description: A Palaeolithic hut-floor, several heaps of stones and a BAC flint workshop. One engraved rock on the very edge of the precipice. Finds: Flint nuclei and blades. Periods MC: UP, BAC. Rock Art: One rock with engravings of ibex and quadrupeds and a Nabatean inscription having the same patina. An ibex engraving with an older patina appears to have been retouched with a metallic tool in a later period. Other pictures have a lighter patina. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V. Site typology: Campsite, flint workshop, heaps of stones, inscription, rock art.

HK/334d

Coordinates: 127,220 / 967,840 Description: Four engraved rocks. An early Arabic inscription. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Four engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, VI, VII. Site typology: Inscription, rock art.

HK/334e

Coordinates: 127,530 / 967,840 Description: Seven engraved rocks. Inscriptions in Thamudic characters. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Seven engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, VI, VII. Site typology: Inscription, rock art.

HK/335

Coordinates: 126.6/967.8 Description: A cluster of 5 stone bases of dwelling units and heaps of stones (probably BYZ). In the same area, 2 tumuli. Finds: Flint. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Heaps of stone, living sites-other, tumuli.

HK/335b

Coordinates: 126,530 / 967,990 Description: Two engraved rocks. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/335c

Coordinates: 126,560 / 967,930 Description: Several heaps of stones on the wadi terrace. In the middle, one rock with inscription in western Semitic characters. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-A. Site typology: Heaps of stones, rock art.

HK/335d

Coordinates: 126,650 / 967,930 Description: Several heaps of stones on the wadi terrace. Finds: No material culture found. Site typology: Heaps of stones.

HK/336

Coordinates: 124.8/966.9 Description: Tumulus measuring 2 m high x 4 m wide and in the vicinity flint (UP). It is likely that no relation exists between the flints and the structure. Finds: Flint. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Tumulus.

HK/337

Coordinates: 126.7/967.1 Description: Remains of an encampment with stone structures. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment. Bibliography: EA97b, p. 20.

HK/337b

Coordinates: 126.8/967.3 Description: One rock with engravings. Finds: One fan scraper and other BAC flints. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: One engraved rock, with a scene of two hunters, with bow and arrows, hunting the same ibex. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/337c

Coordinates: 127.2/967.3 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Three engraved rocks: a Greek inscription. Periods RA: V. Site typology: Inscription, rock art.

HK/337d

Coordinates: 127.1/967.2 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-A, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/337e

Coordinates: 127.1/967.0 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/337f

Coordinates: 127.0/966.9 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VI-VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/337g

Coordinates: 126.9/966.7 Description: Stone structure: temporary encampment on a terrace. Finds: A flint nucleus. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: Five engraved rocks. Periods RA: V, VI, VII. Site typology: Encampment, rock art.

HK/337h

Coordinates: 126.6/966.8 Description: Stone structure: temporary encampment on a natural terrace. Flint workshop (PAL). Finds: Flint nuclei and flakes. A chopper. Periods MC: LP?, MP. Site typology: Encampment, flint workshop.

HK/337i

Coordinates: 126.5/966.8 Description: Rock engraving. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/339

Coordinates: 124.3/965.4 Description: Large black stone with enigmatic engravings. Rock Art: Engraving with ideograms. Periods RA: Probably IV-A or B, anomalous. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/340

Coordinates: 123.8/964.5 Description: 2 stone circles, each having one large stone and several smaller ones. In the centre of one of the circles there is a fallen orthostat. In the other circle the main rock has two lines which may represent the eyes. These circles are likely to be a "private shrine". Finds: BAC flints. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: Rock engraving with a figure of a horseman. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Orthostat, rock art, shrine, stone circle.

HK/341

Coordinates: 123.8/964.4 Description: Remains of a nomadic encampment. Several stone circles, 1 of them includes an orthostat. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Encampment, orthostat, stone circle.

HK/342

Coordinates: 123.7/964.4 Finds: 2 grindstones with a deep working surface. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/343

Coordinates: 123.6/964.4 Description: A series of small tumuli, probably a funerary area. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Tumuli.

HK/344

Coordinates: 122.9/967.3 Description: 2 living structures and remains of terracing in the wadi. Finds: Flints and pottery. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, terrace.

HK/345

Coordinates: 121.7/963.0 Description: On a stone along the road, an Arabic inscription. Rock Art: 1 rock engraved with an Arabic inscription. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Inscription, rock art.

HK/346

Coordinates: 122.3/964.9 Description: 3 hut floors and a few smaller circles. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/346b

Coordinates: 122.3/965.4 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IVA, V. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/346c

Coordinates: 122.3/965.3 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/347

Coordinates: 122.5/965.1 Description: A stone circle probably remains of an enclosure. Periods MC: ISL. Rock Art: Engravings of wassum. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Enclosure.

HK/348

Coordinates: 123.3/963.6 Description: Remains of a nomadic camp with stone walls and circles. Finds: Flint. Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/349

Coordinates: 123.4/963.7 Description: Basement of a structure with stone-built low walls. Periods MC: Roman-Byzantine. Finds: Pottery. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/350

Coordinates: 123.6/963.6 Description: A ground cleared for nomadic tent. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/351

Coordinates: 125.1/963.5 Description: At least 5 Palaeolithic hut floors. Periods MC: UP. Finds: Flint. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/351b

Coordinates: 125.1/963.2 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Three engraved rocks. Periods RA: V, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/351c

Coordinates: 125.5/963.8 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IVA. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/351d

Coordinates: 125.8/963.9 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/352

Coordinates: 124.8/963.6 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing at the bottom of the wadi. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Terrace.

HK/353

Coordinates: 124.8/963.4 Description: 2 Palaeolithic hut floors. Finds: Flint. Periods MC: PAL. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/354

Coordinates: 124.7/963.3 Description: Palaeolithic hut floors and the remains of a large stone circle. Finds: Flint. Periods MC: PAL. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/355

Coordinates: 124.6/963.1 Description: 2 hut floors. Finds: Flint. Periods MC: PAL. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/355b

Coordinates: 125.2/962.9 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: IVA, V. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/355c

Coordinates: 125.2/962.8 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. Periods RA: IVA, IVC, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/355d

Coordinates: 125.1/962.7 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IVC, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/356

Coordinates: 124.6/963.4 Description: Remains of agricultural terracing and a small cave. Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Cave, terrace.

HK/357

Coordinates: 124.3/963.2 Description: 2 hut floors, a small rock shelter and another cave on the edge of the precipice. Site typology: Campsite, cave, rock shelter.

HK/358

Coordinates: 124.3/963.6 Description: Small cave. Site typology: Cave.

HK/359

Coordinates: 124.1/963.2 Description: Some caves on the ridges and on the edge of the precipice. Site typology: Cave.

HK/361

Coordinates: 123.4/968.6 Description: On the slope of a hill, several flint blades and nuclei of Upper Gravettian. The findings were in drained soil and the original site was not found. The presence of cores indicate a flint workshop. Finds: Flint blades and cores (in total 340 among blades, flakes and cores). Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Flint workshop, station. Bibliography: EA95, p. 13.

HK/362

Coordinates: 125.7/965.8 Description: Along the edge of space facing south, a site with several dugout areas in the light coloured ground. In each of the dugout areas is a small standing stone (1-15 cm x 2-4 cm wide). Finds: "Aurignacian-like" flints. Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/363

Coordinates: 123.7/968.4 Rock Art: 3 engraved rocks. Periods RA: IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/364

Coordinates: 123.9/968.4 Description: 2 orthostats on the top of a hill. Site typology: Orthostat, shrine.

HK/365

Coordinates: 126.7/968.4 Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C, V, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/365b

Coordinates: 126.4/968.7 Description: On the slope under HK/106c, four rocks with engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Four engraved rocks. The engravings represent horsemen and ideograms. Periods RA: IVA, IVC, VI, VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/366

Coordinates: 123.4/965.3 Description: A cave with Bedouin remains. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Cave.

HK/367

Coordinates: 123.8/965.1 Description: A cave with Bedouin remains. Periods MC: ISL. Site typology: Cave.

HK/368

Coordinates: 123.7/965.0 Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/369a

Coordinates: 124.3/969.9 Description: Oval enclosure with an anthropomorphic orthostat and a tumulus on 1 side of the wadi. Finds: BAC flints. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Anthropomorphic stone, enclosure, orthostat, rock art, tumulus.

HK/369b

Coordinates: 124.3/969.8 Description: On the other side of the wadi 3 stone bases of oval structure. Finds: BAC flints. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV-C. Site typology: Courtyard, rock art.

HK/370a-b

Coordinates: 122.7/966.8 Description: A: 1 engraved rock. The rock was probably shaped in prehistoric times by hammering off flakes. Same shade of patina as surface. B: A small cave 40m further up. Entrance: 1x1m, approximately 10m long. At the end: 1.80 m large and ca. 1.50 m high. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: I, IV-C, VI. Site typology Cave, rock art. Bibliography: EA96b.p.23.

HK/371

Coordinates: 123.1/960.4 Description: Nomadic camp. 2 heaps of stone, likely to be later tombs. Periods MC: BAC, ISL. Site typology: Encampment, heaps of stone, tumuli.

HK/372

Coordinates: 122.8/960.2 Description: Rock engravings on an isolated stone. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/373

Coordinates: 120.6/961.2 Description: 2 stone circles of BAC period. The larger one, on top of the hill, was reused for an Islamic tomb, for which a heap of stone was added. On the slope of the hill standing stones with Iron Age II pottery. Finds: Pottery of cooking ware type. Periods MC: BAC, IA II. Site typology: Heap of stones, orthostat, stone circles.

HK/374

Coordinates: 120.7/961.6 Description: Bedouin cemetery. Finds: Pottery. Periods MC: Islamic. Site typology: Heaps of stone.

HK/375

Coordinates: 127.9/965.8 Description: Encampment with some small circular structures and engraved rocks. Rock Art: 6 engraved rocks. Periods RA: V. Site typology: Encampment, rock art.

HK/376

Coordinates: 123.6/968.4 Description: Rock engravings. Rock Art: 1 engraved rock. Periods RA: IV/A, IV/C, VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/377

Coordinates: 123.6/968.6 Description: Geoglyph. 2 semi-circles. Site typology: Geoglyph.

HK/378

Coordinates: 126.4/966.5 Description: Cave. Finds: RBY and Islamic pottery. Periods MC: RBY, ISL.

HK/379

Coordinates: 127.4/966.2 Description: Stone circle near some areas cleared of stones. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Site typology: Stone circle. Bibliography:

HK/380

Coordinates: 125.6/960.1 Description: 6 rounded and oval hut floors spread over an area of 70x50m. The largest floor has a diameter of 6m and the smallest one 3m. Finds: Flakes. Nucleus. Blades (probably UP). Periods MC: UP. Site typology: Campsite.

HK/381

Coordinates: 129.7/960.5 Description: A group of enlongated heaps of stones likely to a be a Bedouin graveyard. The flint implements have a light patina, which can be dated to Post-Palaeolithic periods. Above the site, 60m to the west on on top of a hill, is a heap of stones. Finds: Bladelets. Flints. Periods MC: Post-PAL. Site typology: Bedouin graveyard (?)

HK/382

Coordinates: 120.7/962.2 Description: A plaza site. A circle of 6 structures. There is one heap of stones of 2x2.5m; one oval of 4x3m; and 4 circular structures, two of which measure3x3m; another 2.30mx1.60m and the final one is made of one smaller circle inside a larger one, measuring 2x2.5m and 4x5m respectively. The diameter of the whole plaza site is approximately 30m. Finds: Axe. Scraper. Periods MC: Early BAC/Chalcolithic. Site typology: Plaza.

HK/383

Coordinates: 120.7/962.4 Description: 2 tumuli. One has a diameter of 5m, the other 3m. There are several smaller heaps of stones present, likely to be tombs. Atypical flint flakes with a light patina. These are likely to be Palaeolithic flakes reused in later times. Finds: Early BAC, elongated blade; atypical flint flakes. Periods MC: PAL. BAC. Site typology: Tumuli.

HK/384

Coordinates: 120.8/962.3 Description: 2 oval-shaped platforms, measuring 4x3m and 3x3.0m. Finds: A few atypical flint flakes, probably early BAC. Periods MC: early BAC. Site typology: Platforms.

HK/385

Coordinates: 121.3/962.4 Description: Alignments of stones marking the location of a nomadic camp, spread out in a row displaying 9 to 10 units and measuring approximately 60m in length. Finds: A fan scraper on tabular flint (BAC). Periods MC: BAC. Site typology: Encampment.

HK/386

Coordinates: 120.4/966.3 Description: A cave about 5m deep with a partially natural, partially-built wall. Finds: Hay. Wood. An axe from 18th or 19th century. Site typology: Cave.

HK/387

Coordinates: 120.35/968.9 Description: 6 tumuli. Finds: Flint implements LP, UP, and BAC. Site typology: Tumuli.

HK/388a

Coordinates: 128.4/967.8 Description: 8 main structures. The first is comprised of 3 circular heaps of stones with diameters of 5m; 4.5m; 2.5m. 50m to the west of these three is a fourth structure of a stone circle which is partially filled with stones. 40m to the west of this fourth stucture is a similar structure measuring 4 x 3.5m and shows remains of a well-built wall. Opposite are remains with a diameter of 4m; and 40m further west of this there are two oval structures of 4x3.5m and 2x1.5m. The last structure found was a paved platform with associated structures surrounding it. Finds: Post-paleaeolthic/pre-BAC; early Chalcolithic; atypical flints. Site typology: Heaps and rows of stones, Platform.

HK/388b

Coordinates: 127,460 / 967,920 Description: One engraved rock. Finds: No material culture found. Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/388c

Coordinates: 127,460 / 968,20 Description: Five tumuli aligned by the side of the wadi bed and rock art nearby. Finds: Flints. Periods MC: BAC. Rock Art: Nine engraved rocks on the slope 40 m est of the tumuli. Periods RA: IV-A, IV-C, V, VI, VII. Site typology: Tumuli, rock art.

HK/388d

Coordinates: 127,130 / 968,220 Description: A tumulus and a stone circle. Finds: No material culture found. Site typology: Tumulus.

HK/389

Coordinates: 128.40/966.85 Description: Rock engravings. Rock Art: 2 engraved rocks. Periods RA: VI. Site typology: Rock art.

HK/390

Coordinates: 128.1/965.7 Description: Rock engravings. Rock Art: Three main areas of engravings. The first is a single rock with an engraving from period IV-C of 2 quadrupeds, probably dogs. The second area has 5 engraved rocks mostly from IV-C; VI; and VII with a small heap of stones which is likely to be a Beduoin tomb. The final area has 3 more engraved rocks and an anthropomorphic orthostat. Periods RA: IV-C; VI and VII. Site typology: anthropmorphic orthostat, Beduoin (?) tomb, rock art.

HK/391

Coordinates: 126.5/966.5 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: IVA. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/392

Coordinates: 126.6/966.6 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: One engraved rock. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/393

Coordinates: 126.6/966.7 Description: Rock engravings. Finds: No material culture found. Periods MC: Rock Art: Two engraved rocks. A hammerstone still lies on the engraved surface. Periods RA: VII. Site typology: Rock art. Bibliography:

HK/394a-b

Coordinates: 122.9/967.5 Description: Small hamlet with the basement of 2 structures and several heaps of stones. Stone circle. Finds: Roman pottery belonging to the 1st century BCE (HK/394b). Periods MC: RBY. Site typology: Hamlet, stone circle.

HK/395

Coordinates: 126.4/966.3 Description: Cave. Finds: RBY Pottery. Periods MC: RBY.

HK/398

Coordinates: 123.7/967.7 Finds: Epipalaeolithic flints including bladelets. Periods MC: EPI. Site typology: Station.
more...View all the page


Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).


Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links


Copyright 2001-2017 by Emmanuel Anati. All rights reserved. No part of this web site may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages and reproduce not more than two illustrations in a review to be published in a magazine, newspaper or web review.
Reviews should include at least two links to www.harkarkom.com, once in the article body and once at its end, referring readers to www.harkarkom.com for more informations.


Edizioni del Centro, 25044 Capo di Ponte, Valcamonica (BS), Italy
TEL: 0039 0364/42091, FAX: 0039 0364/42572, [email protected]

  


Webdesign by feedmeback