Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
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Emmanuel Anati:
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Several of the now desert areas of the Near East were intensely frequented in the third millennium BC


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Mount Sinai has been found.
 


Har Karkom sites by periods


Palaeolithic period


The most important feature of Palaeolithic ages at Har Karkom is the presence of several sites primarily lying on the surface, due to the desert conditions, that allow the investigation of site morphology related to the prehistoric culture in a large number of sites. The survey of the Palaeolithic started in 1990, since a specific study group was formed to record and investigate the Palaeolithic sites. In total, 245 sites were recorded, Lower Palaeolithic flint implements having been found in 44 sites, Middle Palaeolithic in 136 and Upper Palaeolithic in 134 sites. More than one Palaeolithic culture was recorded in several sites.

Total Palaeolithic sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969   2 21   23       10
96811   417372       62
967   1581127211     74
966       1071911   1   48
965         720   1     28
964     2     7   2     11
963           1   1     2
962         5     2   18
961     1               1
960           1         1
TOT1410234711437711245

On the top of the plateau, the remains of 165 Palaeolithic sites are still lying on the ground surface, about 8 squared Km, with a density of about 20 sites/squared Km. On the contrary, the density of Palaeolithic sites in the surroundings of the mountain does not exceed 1 site/squared Km. Therefore, the systematic survey of Palaeolithic sites was primarily directed to Har Karkom plateau.

The relative chronology of Palaeolithic at Har Karkom is based on the comparison of the material culture with literature data of the Negeb and the Near East, as the conformation of the territory, lack of stratigraphy and of organic remains, does not allow an absolute chronology by standard methods. According to the findings, the relative chronology is >100,000 years BP for Lower Palaeolithic, >40,000 for Middle Palaeolithic, and >18,000 for Upper Palaeolithic.

The plateau is characterised by a 5-10 cm layer of tabular flint, brown in colour, that covers the whole surface, called the hamada (=burned) by the Arabic nomads. Worked flints, tools and many flakes are still lying in the ancient sites. All the findings lie on the surface, without any stratigraphy. The typology of the findings can be summarised as follows:

- campsites, characterised by groups of round or oval hut floors, often connected by a path and realised by cleaning the surface from the flints in correspondence with the huts, so that the underlying loess appears. More than 900 hut floors were recognised in 197 campsites;

- fireplaces, stone circles with traces of fire, found in 28 campsites, in relationship with (inside or immediately outside) the hut floors;

- flint workshops, reported in 48 sites within the campsites, or in the vicinity, or isolated, and characterised by flint flakes and sometimes tools, that may be still connected to the original nuclei;

- stations, areas with concentration of material culture (flint tools), but without evidence of hut floors or flint workshops: twenty-five sites were reported, may be campsites done during more humid climate, when the ground was covered by humus and vegetation, and therefore not directly placed on the flint layer. The actual remains should be the result of ground erosion during the arid periods.

Lower Palaeolithic cultures included Acheulian, Clactonian or Micocqian; in the Middle Palaeolithic sites Mousterian and Aterian flints were collected; finally, early Upper Palaeolithic cultures were abundant, while only few sites were represented for late Upper Palaeolithic [Mailland 1992:3-10, 1993:4, 1995:4-6, 1996:31, 1998:9-14]. Interestingly, flint tools of a transition culture between Middle and Upper Palaeolithic were collected in sixteen sites exclusively on the Eastern part of the plateau. This culture has been provisionally named Karkomian [Anati 1996:38].

Lower Palaeolithic sites - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969   1                 1
9681       28         11
967     11177       17
966           12       3
965           6         6
964           3   1     4
963               1     1
962               1     1
961                     0
960                     0
TOT1111325930044

Typology: Campsite Site Numbers (HK/): 005a-b 008 011a-b 015b 016 017 019 020 021a 021b 023 025b 025c 025d 027 027b 027c 029b 029c 029d 044 044b 044c 044e 056e 071a 071b 072 072b 072c 072d 072e 072f 073 073b 073c 074 074b 074c 074d 074e 075 075b 075c 075d 075e 075f 075g 075h 076 076b 076c 077 077b 077c 077d 081b 081c 081d 082 082b 083 083b 083c 083d 086 087 088 088b 093 102b 104 105 106a 113b 113c 113d 114 114b 114c 114d 119 119b 120b 120c 120d 120e 123 127 133 134 136 136b 137b 137c 137d 138b 144 144b 145a 145b 145c 146 146c 147 148 148b 149 149b 149c 155 159b 190 190b 191a 191b 191c 192 193 194 195 196 197a 197b 197c 197d 198 199a 199b 200 201 201b 202 202b 203 204 205 206 206b 207 208 209 210 211 211c 211d 212 212e 214 219 247 262 266 270 270b 271 272 272b 273 274 276 280c 281 283 288 291 292 296 297 298 298b 298c 298d 298e 299 300 301b 301c 302 302b 302d 304 305 306 309 309b 313 315 334c 346 351 353 354 355 357 362 380 Total N of sites: 197

Typology: Station Site Numbers (HK/): 006 007 007b 009 010a-b 012 047b 048 051b 071c 077e 078b 084 086b 094 106b 106c 106f 120 201c 211b 212c 302c 334b 337h Total N of sites: 25

Typology: Flint workshop (Palaeolithic) Site Numbers (HK/): 006 009 010a-b 012 016 017 020 021a 023 025b 029c 044c 044e 047b 048 071b 071c 072b 072f 074d 074e 077 077c 077d 077e 078b 081b 081c 083d 094 102b 106c 106f 119b 120b 120d 134 137c 137d 196 197a 201c 209 211b 211c 214 334c 337h Total N of sites: 48

Typology: Fireplace (Palaeolithic) Site Numbers (HK/): 023 044b 072d 072e 073 073c 074d 074e 075 075d 075e 075g 075h 077b 082b 083 088 102b 120e 127 134 144b 145b 146c 191b 195 203 214 Total N of sites: 28

Period: Lower Palaeolithic Site Numbers (HK/): 005a-b 007 008 011a-b 023 025c 027 029 029d 051b 081b 081c 083 083b 083c 083d 088 093 113d 114d 120 120e 136b 137b 137c 149 197b 197c 197d 198 199a 200 201b 202b 204 205 211 232 233 241 267 317 337h 387 Total N of sites: 44

Middle Palaeolithic sites - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969   11     22       6
968       110252       38
967   113101411       40
966       43105       22
965         512   1     18
964           5   1     6
963                     0
962         4     1   16
961                     0
960                     0
TOT0228326820301136

Period: Middle Palaeolithic Site Numbers (HK/): 004a-b 006 007 007b 007d 008 009 010a-b 011c 012 015b 017 018 019 020 021a 023 025 025b 025d 027c 029b 035 036 039 044 044b 044e 045a-g 056a 056e 060 061 063 070 071c 072 072c 074 074b 075c 075f 075g 075h 076 076b 076c 077 077b 077d 079 081b 081c 081d 082 082b 083b 083c 086 088 088b 092 093 094 102b 103 104 105 106a 106b 106c 106f 108 111 113 113b 114b 114c 120 120c 120d 123 125 126c 127 136 136b 137d 144 144b 145b 146 147 148b 149b 189 190 190b 191b 191c 192 193 194 195 197a 197c 199b 201 201b 202b 204 206b 207 211 211b 211c 211d 212 212c 212e 214 225 234 245a-b 268 280 300 302 302c 302d 307 309b 322 332 334b 337h Total N of sites: 136

Upper Palaeolithic sites - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969     11     2       4
96811   31213         30
967     44415151     43
966       84117   1   31
965         614         20
964     2               2
963           1         1
962         1           1
961     1               1
960           1         1
TOT11816275524110134

Period: Upper Palaeolithic Site Numbers (HK/): 002a-b 005a-b 006 007 008 013 013b-c 016 017 021a 021b 023 025 025c 027 027b 029c 039 044c 045a-g 046 047b 048 048b 050b 055 056e 056f 071a 071b 071c 072b 072c 072d 072e 072f 073 073b 073c 074c 074d 074e 075 075b 075c 075d 075e 075f 075g 076b 076c 077 077b 077c 077d 078b 081c 083 083d 084 086 086b 087 088b 091a-b 092 103 106a 106f 109 110b 113c 113d 114 114d 119 119b 120 120b 120e 122 127 127b 131 133 134 144 144b 145a 145c 146c 146d 148 149 149b 149c 158 159b 191a 196 197a 197b 199a 200 201c 202 202b 203 205 206 207 208 209 210 223 228a-b 249 302b 308 320 322 331 332 334b 334c 335 336 344 346 351 361 362 380 387 Total N of sites: 134

Culture: Karkomian Site Numbers (HK/): 013b-c 027 047b 073 073b 073c 074c 074d 074e 086 086b 087 113c 113d 146c 191a Total N of sites: 16

Epipalaeolithic period

Epipalaeolithic flints were found in two sites on the top of Har Karkom plateau, namely: site HK 16, a complex Upper Palaeolithic site with remains of 8 hut floors and of accessory structures, settled during at least two different periods [Anati 1986:297, 1996:26] and site HK 398, where isolated flints, mainly bladelets, were found.

Epipalaeolithic sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969                     0
968                     0
967       1     1       2
966                     0
965                     0
964                     0
963                     0
962                     0
961                     0
960                     0
TOT00010010002

Period: Epipalaeolithic Site Numbers (HK/): 016 398 Total N of sites: 2

Neolithic period

Neolithic material culture (only flints: arrowheads and bladelets, some sporadic axes) was evident in 8 sites, 7 out of them on the top of Har Karkom plateau and one Northwest of the mountain. As the Neolithic flints were always associated with material culture from different periods, either Palaeolithic or BAC, no comments may be made about the structures, stone circles or basements of huts, sometimes associated with Neolithic culture.

Neolithic sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969   1                 1
968       11           2
967         1           1
966       11           2
965         11         2
964                     0
963                     0
962                     0
961                     0
960                     0
TOT01024100008

Period: Neolithic Site Numbers (HK/): 004a-b 045a-g 070 076b 077d 106e 122b 145b 245a-b Total N of sites: 8

Bronze age complex period

On the western and northern side of the mountain there are some valleys with several remains of settlements, belonging to the Late Chalcolithic, the Early Bronze age and the beginning of the Middle Bronze age, a period dating back to the 4th and the 3rd millennia BC. It is referred to as BAC, or Bronze Age Complex, 197 sites in total. On the plateau no living site was identified from the BAC period, but there are two structures recognised as shrines, and several rock art sites associated with material culture from BAC period.

Bronze Age Complex sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969   522413       17
96812   51016211139
967   1822914621   63
966     210463   1   26
965   3     3811     16
964   125   113     13
963     21       1     4
962331   4     2     13
9612   2               4
960       2             2
TOT61519473446161031197

The material culture collected in BAC sites consists in worked flints, out of them only a minority is formed by typical tools, including blades with continuous retouching, knives, endscrapers and sidescrapers, points, blades with retouched points. Arrow heads are rare. This lithic industry is Chalcolithic in type. There is a high percentage of re-utilised Palaeolithic implements, further retouched during BAC period, having a lighter patina. Most pottery finds consist of minute fragments belonging to two phases: the Early Bronze Age II and the Middle Bronze Age I. Common pottery belonging to Chalcolithic or Early Bronze age was also found. Most of the pottery shapes are neck-less bowls and hole-mouth jars, in general the quality is poor. The types of vessels can be compared to similar finds from the southern periphery of the Fertile Crescent.

The most common building type of BAC period has been given the name of Courtyard structure [Anati 1993:39] found in 23 sites. Several stone foundations together form large rounded courtyards with small rooms radiating from the walls. Pottery belonging to the Early Bronze Age II is frequently found inside. Smaller structures, which seem to have been added later, may show that the courtyards may have been used for several generations as seasonal or semi-permanent habitations. In relationship with the Courtyard structures, piles of stones or orthostats placed in front of a boulder may indicate a sort of a witness place, like those described in the Bible and called Gal-ed, where agreements and alliances took place. A second type of dwelling sites, consisting of agglomerations of low walls, including several rooms and little courtyards, have been named Hamlet [Anati 1993:42] found in 5 sites. This type of site is frequently associated with enclosures, tumuli, pillars and paved platforms not far from the remains of the dwelling. Similar sites are known from the Uvda Valley, south of Har Karkom, and represent a more permanent kind of settlements than the others. The Hamlets have been tentatively ascribed to Midianite tribes. The most heavily populated dwelling sites were the Row sites [Anati 1993:42] found in 9 sites, made up of a series of oval, circular or angular structures arranged in a row. The planning of sites apparently reflects a more complex tribal organisation compared to other BAC settlements. The row sites are hypothesised to have been settled by Amalekites. Another kind of settlement has been named Plaza site [Anati 1987]. They are stone-built structures organised in large circle around a vast central plaza. No pottery was found in Plaza sites, only abundant BAC flints. Therefore, these sites are probably belonging to the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze age I. They are usually located at 2-3 Km from the foot of Har Karkom and form a ring around the mountain. Twenty plaza sites are reported here. Several hypotheses arose about the function of the Plaza sites: guard points, or "bounds round the mountain", living quarters or workshops, commercial places. Apart from the four described living sites, another kind of site may reflect a nomadic temporary encampment, with basements of huts, reflecting a way of life similar to that of the modern Bedouins, but going back to 4,000 years ago. BAC material culture was found in 25 sites classified as encampment.

Another group of structures, named shrine, are cult sites, like the large ceremonial site HK 106d along the Northeastern sacred trail [Mailland 2001:25], or the "midianite temple" HK 24 on the top of the mountain. Other shrines are characterized by pillars, surrounded by circles of stones, spiral structures and cleaned surface. They may be isolated on the top of the mountain, or in the vicinity of funerary areas with tumuli, or placed along the sacred trails, seldom some small structures ("private shrines") have been found within or in the vicinity of the dwelling sites.

While in more fertile areas these two and a half millennia have been characterised by a sequence of different culture, at Har Karkom we gather the impression of a single cultural pattern with the persistence of a flint industry of Chalcolithic tradition and rare potsherds of EBII and MBI affiliations.

In conclusion, the BAC sites reflect semi-nomadic or semi-sedentary ways of life by peripheral communities. A culture of marginal groups persisted for over two millennia, since 4500 to 1950 BC. From the variety of living site typology the presence of different ethnical groups may be hypothesised.

Period: BAC (Bronze AgeComplex) Site Numbers (HK/): 001 001b 002a-b 004a-b 005a-b 006 007 008 010a-b 011c 012 013b-c 014 015 018 020 021a 022 023 023b 024a-b 025 027 027b 027c 028 029 029b 031b 035 038 039 042 044c 044d 045a-g 046 048 048b 049 050 050b 051 051b 052 053 054 055 056b 056e 059a-c 060 061 062a 062b 062c 063 064 064b 065 065c 065d 067 068c 068d 069 071a 072 072b 072d 072e 074c 074d 075c 075e 075g 075h 076c 077 077c 077d 079b 081b 085 089 092b 093 093b 106a 106c 106d 107b 108 109 110b 111 113 113b 120 122 122b 126 126b 131 132 133 136 145b 147 150 151 152 153 153b 153d 154b 156 158 161 170 180 192 194 197c 202b 205 206b 211 212 212c 212d 218 221b 225 228a-b 228c 229 229b 232 233 234 239 240 241 243a-c 243d 244 245a-b 245c 246a-b 246c 249c 259 262b 267 268 280 301 302 302c 307 308 309 310 310b 311 312 316 317 318 319 320 321 323 329 332 334b 334c 337b 337g 340 341 342 343 344 348 369a 369b 371 373 382 383 384 385 387 388 388c Total N of sites: 197

Typology: Courtyard Site Numbers (HK/): 001 024a-b 052 063 064 065 122 122b 129 131 153 153b 154b 219 229b 246a-b 257 282 284 310b 312 313 369b Total N of sites: 23

Typology: Hamlet Site Numbers (HK/): 050 060 132 161 394 Total N of sites: 5

Typology: Row Site Numbers (HK/): 001b 062a 063 154 154c 160 165 189 261 Total N of sites: 9

Typology: Encampment (BAC) Site Numbers (HK/): 001 001b 005a-b 008 050 050b 056e 153d 180 218 229b 232 233 239 249c 267 268 280 337g 341 342 344 348 371 385 Total N of sites: 25

Typology: Plaza Site Numbers (HK/): 151 152 156 158 217 232 234 235 241 245a-b 259 267 280 282 303 307 308 310 316 382 Total N of sites: 20

Typology: Shrine Site Numbers (HK/): 001b 007 007c 008c 013e 023 024a-b 051 051b 052 054 106d 149c 212d 221b 251a-b 285 334b 340 364 Total N of sites: 20

Iron age

Pottery sherds belonging to Iron age II were found in one site, namely site HK 373, at the Southwest of HK MAP-1. Near two stone circles of BAC period, some standing stones were found on the slope of a hill, associated with Iron age II pottery.

Iron Age sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969                     0
968                     0
967                     0
966                     0
965                     0
964                     0
963                     0
962                     0
9611                   1
960                     0
TOT10000000001

Period: Iron Age Site Numbers (HK/): 373 Total N of sites: 1

Hellenistic period

An East-West oriented rectangular stone structure, Hellenistic in type, has been excavated on the top of a small mountain facing Har Karkom from the Western side, site HK 221b [Anati 1993:56-57; Manfredi 1995:106-114]. The structure has been interpreted as a sanctuary. Pottery of local tradition dates to the Hellenistic period. No other Hellenistic site was found in HK MAP-1, while a large stone built village of this period, with more than 100 dwelling units, is known [Anati 1986:319] from the area of Beer Karkom, 1.5 Km North of the sanctuary.

Hellenistic sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969     1               1
968                     0
967                     0
966                     0
965                     0
964                     0
963                     0
962                     0
961                     0
960                     0
TOT00100000001

Period: Hellenistic Site Numbers (HK/): 221b Total N of sites: 1

Roman and Byzantine period

The area of Har Karkom was settled again during Roman-Byzantine periods, the settlements reflecting the life of semi-nomadic population which economy was based on sheep-raising and seasonal agriculture. The sites were characterised by stone-built dwelling structures (found in 24 sites), mainly rectangular structures organised in a row, pens, agricultural terracing (found in 15 sites). Scarce pottery sherds were found inside the structures or in the vicinity. Roman and Byzantine sites have been described altogether due to the difficulty in distinguishing between Roman and Byzantine ware. Nabataean pottery and inscriptions were also found in some sites.

Roman-Byzantine sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969   13141         10
968   111323       11
967     16111       10
966       2212       7
965   1     22         5
964     111   2       5
963     112   11     6
962                     0
961   1           1     2
960   1                 1
TOT05712157920057

Altogether, 57 sites of this period have been reported here. The sites are spread in the surveyed territory, mostly along the wadi banks and terraces, but no stone structures were found on the top of Har Karkom. For some site it has been described a close resemblance to certain typical monastic settlements in the Near East and Egypt [Cottinelli 1998:39-55].

Period: Roman-Byzantine Site Numbers (HK/): 001 005a-b 008 014 038 039 043 049 052 062a 062b 062c 063 065 069 079 079b 106c 106d 106e 124 135 135b 143 151 153 153d 154 160 161 165 168 169 189 213 215 217 219 221 221b 223 225 227 228c 229 230 233 243a-c 246d 287b 325 335 349 352 356 378 395 Total N of sites: 57

Typology: Structure (Roman-Byzantine) Site Numbers (HK/): 001 005a-b 052 062a 062b 062c 063 065 106e 135b 153 154 160 161 165 168 189 213 217 221 230 233 243a-c 349 Total N of sites: 24

Typology: Terrace (Roman-Byzantine) Site Numbers (HK/): 043 062b 124 135 135b 169 213 217 223 225 227 229 287b 352 356 Total N of sites: 15

Islamic period

The findings related to the Islamic period from the beginning until the most recent times are referred to as "Islamic". Sporadic findings, mainly inscriptions, reveal the activity of early Arabs. On the contrary, numerous remains are indicating modern Bedouin activity: tent foundations, encampments, small stone structures and walls closing caves and rock shelters, fireplaces, cemeteries. Pottery sherds of Gaza type, plastic containers, wood instruments are found on the surface. Bedouins were still active in the territory of Har Karkom until the years fifties of this century, mainly for sheep-raising or trading. They preferably re-utilised the ancient instalments, therefore finds from the Islamic period were evident in 75 sites, in 44 out of them the Islamic findings were associated with at least one ancient material culture, mostly BAC or Roman-Byzantine.

Islamic sites - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
969   11131     1   8
968   1   4522       14
967     66   13       16
966     17     111   11
965   11221   11   9
964     31       1     5
963     11             2
962     1               1
96111           2     4
960     12       1   15
TOT141524105663175

Period: Islamic Site Numbers (HK/): 001b 002a-b 013d 014 048 050 050b 052 056d 056e 062a 062b 062c 064d 065c 066 068b 068d 069 070 080 104b 106d 116 120 121 122 124 125 129 135b 150 153 153c 153d 158 161 165 166 216 218 220 222 224 225 228a-b 229b 230 235c 243a-c 243d 243e 248b 249c 267 317 319 325 325b 326 327 332 333 337 343 344 347 350 366 367 371 374 378 381 390 Total Nof sites: 75 Total N of sites: 75

Sites lacking indicative finds

The lack of material culture did not allow to date 222 sites of the present report. Out of them, 105 were Rock Art sites and classified according to the rock art style. The remaining 117 sites included geoglyphs, stone circles, atypical flints, hut floors, heaps of stones, tumuli, terracing, standing stones: the same findings of the well documented and dated sites, where the nomadic character of the settlement and the absence of flints or ceramic impeded to date the site. In this respect, the situation of the sites lacking material culture is similar to that already reported for other areas of Southern Negeb [Avni 1992:20*-21*].

Period: Sites lacking indicative finds Site Numbers (HK/): 003 003b 003c 007c 008b 008c 008d 013e 024c 026 030 031 032b 032c 033 034 036b 037 038b 040 041 041b 047 056c 056g 057 058 064c 065b 068 077e 078 079c 081 090 090b 093c 095 096 097 098 099 100 101a-b 102 107 110 112 117 118 122c 128 130 137 138 138b 138c 138d 139 139b 140 141 142 145d 146b 154c 155 157 159 162 163 164 167 181 188 190c 193b 212b 216b 220b 220c 220d 226 231 233b 233c 233d 234b 234c 234d 234e 234f 235 235b 238 242 246e 246f 246g 247 248 249b 250 251a-b 257 258 258b 258c 258d 259b 260 261 262 262c 262d 263 264 265 266 269 269b 269c 269d 270 270b 271 272 272b 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280b 280c 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 287c 287d 287e 287f 287g 287h 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 298b 298c 298d 298e 299 301b 301c 301d 301e 301f 301g 303 304 305 306 310c 312b 313 314 315 324 328 330 334 334d 334e 335b 335c 335d 337c 337d 337e 337f 337i 339 345 346b 346c 351b 351c 351d 353 354 355 355b 355c 355d 357 358 359 363 364 365 365b 368 370a-b 372 375 376 377 379 386 388b 388d 389 391 392 393 394 58b Total N of sites: 222

Typology: Geoglyph Site Numbers (HK/): 010a-b 023 024c 032c 038b 040 044c 056a 056c 059a-c 064 064c 065 068c 101a-b 113b 120e 127b 190c 193b 212c 231 233d 280 377 Total N of sites: 25



Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).


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