Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
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Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

Was the perceived sanctity of the mountain an uninterrupted process, or was it renewed in each new period?


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Mount Sinai has been found.
 


Beer Karkom sites by periods


Palaeolithic period


Total Palaeolithic sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979     12     2       5
978                     0
97712                 3
976   22221     2   11
97512     1         15
97421122           8
973     137         112
972     1564       218
9711111   1   2   218
970   2   131         7
TOT510716217222678
Lower Palaeolithic sites - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979                     0
978                     0
977                     0
976                     0
975                     0
974                     0
973   1   12           4
972       11           2
971     11             2
970   1                 1
TOT02133000009

Period: Lower Palaeolithic Site Numbers (BK/): 412a-c 427 428a-b 457e 481a-b 501d 506 511c 515b Total N of sites: 9

Middle Palaeolithic sites - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979       1   1         2
978                     0
977                     0
976                     0
975                     0
974                     0
973   1   12           4
972     1523       112
971   234   322     16
970   3       1         4
TOT0641148220138

Period: Middle Palaeolithic Site Numbers (BK/): 183b 253a 253b 415 420a-b 434a-b 450 455 456 457 457e 457f 458 459 462 463 464b 465 466 470 494a-c 501d 504b 506b 508b 511 511b 512a 515 587 689a-b 713b 785 786 813a 817 818 845 Total N of sites: 38

Upper Palaeolithic sites - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979       211       4
978                     0
977                 1   1
976    1     1 1         3
975                     0
974    1     1           2
973     1    5          6
972          2         2
971 1  21       1       5
970    4 2 1   1         8
TOT184294201031

Period: Upper Palaeolithic Site Numbers (BK/): 183b 253a 253b 415 420a-b 434a-b 450 455 456 457 457e 457f 458 459 462 463 464b 465 466 470 494a-e 501d 504b 506b 508b 511 511b 512a 515 587 689a-b 713b 785 786 813a 817 818 845 Total N of sites: 31

Epipalaeolithic period

Epipalaeolithic sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979                     0
978                     0
977                    0
976                     0
975                     0
974                     0
973                     0
972                     0
971                     0
970                     0
TOT00000000000

Neolithic period

Neolithic sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979                     0
978                     0
977   1                 1
976                     0
975                     0
974                     0
973                     0
972                     0
971       1             1
970         1           1
TOT01011000003

Period: Neolithic Site Numbers (BK/): 173a-b 463 608 Total N of sites: 3

Bronze age complex period

Bronze Age Complex sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979 1   1 1            3
978        1          1
977 2211       6
976   2 11       4
975  4            4
974  1 3 3       7
973   547 122       30
972 42 85 8     330
9711 46 7      2    20
970   5  2 64        17
TOT427143028140203122

Period: Bronze Age Complex Site Numbers (BK/): 172 173a-b 173c 174 176 179a-b 183 253a 253b 400 401 402 404 407 408 409a-b 410a-e 412a-c 413 416 417 418 419 421 422 426 427 430a-e 431 432 433 433b 434a-b 435 437 446b 446f 447 447b 448 449 450 451 452 453 453b 453c 454 457 457b 457d 457e 457f 458 459 462 463 463b-c 464b 465 466 467a-e 468 469 470 472a-b 478 481a-b 482 494a-c 497a-b 499 500 500a 501a-b 501d 501e 502 502b 504b 505 506 507a 508a 511 511b 512a 512b 513 514 515 515b 517 518 532b 539 546 547 548b 554 561 566 567 568 574 590 608 680 683 689a-b 698 709 752 762 769 819 820 821 832a-b 846 847 848 Total N of sites: 122

Iron age

Iron Age sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979             1       1
978                     0
977                     0
976         1           1
975                     0
974 1       1           2
973     1  1           2
972   1                 1
971                    0
970         1           1
TOT11104010008

Period: Iron Age Site Numbers (BK/): 173a-b 407 453 502b 559 592 605 790 Total N of sites: 8

Hellenistic period

Hellenistic sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979                     0
978                     0
977                     0
976                     0
975         1           1
974       11           2
973         1           1
972                     0
971     1 3             4
970     1               1
TOT00243000009

Period: Hellenistic Site Numbers (BK/): 173a-b 407 453 502b 559 592 605 790 Total N of sites: 9

Roman and Byzantine period

Roman-Byzantine sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979 2 12421   1   13
978 1  21 1   1   6
977 2 1 45  1 4 118
976     24211 2   113
975 12 2 11      1   8
974 3  153          12
973   6251431       31
972   3247 92  3 232
971   1 8 11 1   1      22
970   4 2 1 42         13
TOT9172039421773104168

Period: Roman-Byzantine Site Numbers (BK/): 172 173a-b 175 179a-b 183 186 400 401 402 404b 405 405b 406 408 410a-e 410f-g 410h-i 411 412a-c 413b 414 415 416 417 417b 418 419 422 423 424 425 427 428a-b 429 430a-e 431 432 432b 433 435 436 441 442 443a-b 445 446 446e 447 449b 450 453 457 457c 457d 458 462 463 463b-c 464 465 468 469 470 471 471c 471d 473a-b 474a-c 475a-b 476 477a-c 479 480a-b 481a-b 482 483 486 488 489 491 492 497a-b 498a-b 499 500 500b 500c 500d 501a-b 501e 502 502b 503 505 506 507b 507c 509 515c 523 524 538c 541 546 548b 549 549c 551b 559 562 569b 601 601b 602a 604b 605 606 606b 607 607b 607c 624 626 632 639 640a-b 641 662 663 665 672 681a 681b 683 684 685 688 689a-b 690 690b 693 698 701 702 704 705 707 713b 718 729 737 738 740 741 742 743 752 754 767 774 776 789 790 791 821 832a-b 843 845 Total N of sites: 168

Islamic period

Islamic sites - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979 1 1131   11   9
978 2   1      1 15
977 3 2   21  1 1 212
976     11 11111   7
975    12       14
974     1 8           9
973   212 81 21     17
972     1 3 21 2   1 212
97111 1 3   4       111
970   6 1 22 1    113
TOT7117142611645899

Period: Islamic Site Numbers (BK/): 172 175 179a-b 183 183d 338 360 400 404b 407 407b 408 409a-b 411 411b 417b 428a-b 433 445 446c 446d 446g 446h 447 450 450b 450c 454b 457 457d 458 463b-c 474a-c 481a-b 482 484 487 488 490 492b 494a-c 496 500c 501a-b 502 503 504c 505 506 507b 507c 529 549 551b 554 568 569b 602a 602b 602c 607 608 624 659 661 663 686 687 690b 691 702 708 710 714 727 729 736 737 738 739 744 747 748 750 752 753 754 758 776 777 780 782 787 789 813a 817 844 848 855 Total N of sites: 73

Rock Art sites

Rock Art sites surveyed - quantitative table
LONG/
LAT
120121122123124125126127128129TOT
979                     0
978                     0
977                     0
976   1                 1
975                     0
974       1        1
973       31        4
972           4       26
971   1   113 1    411
970           23  1   6
TOT020439401629

Sites lacking indicative finds Site Numbers (BK/): 171 173d 177 177b 178 182 183c 183c 184 185 229c 236 237 252a 252b-d 254 255 256 400b 400c 401b 403 437b 438 439 444 460 461 483b 495 500e 500f 501c 504 515d 516 519 520 521 522 525 527 528 530a-b 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 538b 539b 540 542 543 544 545 547b 548 550 551 552 553 553b 555 556 557 558 563 565 569 573 575 585 603 604 606c 607d 608b 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 616b 617 618 619 619b 620 621 622 623 623b 625 627 628 629 630 631 633 634 635 636 637 638 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 660 664 666 667 668 669 670 671 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 682 692a-c 694 695 696 697 699 700 703 706 711 712 713a 715a 715b 715c 715d 716 717 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 728 730 731 732 733 734 735 745 746 749 751 755 756 757 759 760 761 763a-b 764 765a-b 768 770a-b 771 773 775b 776b 778 779 781 783 788 802 803 811 813b Total N of sites: 204



Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).


Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links


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