Mount Sinai has been found: 20 years of Biblical Archaeology in the desert of Exodus. The real Mount Sinai has been found by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom.
Emmanuel Anati:
Gordon Franz:

On the plateau, a large number of Palaeolithic sites are found

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Mount Sinai has been found.

The Riddle of Mount Sinai
Archaeological Discoveries at Har Karkom

Fig. 153a/b. Rock engraving called the 'Tablets of the Law'.  The form has a dual rounded top and ten partitions:  two at the top, two at the base, and six at the centre. (Site HK 126b; photo EA98: LVI-3; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06009, W06011).

What is the true story behind the biblical narration of Exodus?
Where is Mount Sinai?

This book presents archaeological evidence unearthed by Prof. Emmanuel Anati at Har Karkom, in the Negev desert, Israel. Geographically, Mount Karkom is situated approximately half way between Kadesh Barnea and Petra.

Har Karkom was a paramount cult centre and a sacred mountain beginning in the Palaeolithic Age, reaching its peak of religious activity in the third millennium BC, when it was a true "Mecca" for the desert people.

If the epic accounts described in the books of Exodus and Numbers rely on a historical background, and if indeed an exodus from Egypt took place with stops at Mount Sinai and at Kadesh-barnea, the chronological context may refer only to the BAC period, and more precisely to phase BAC IV (2350-2000 BC).

Har Karkom was a primary sacred mountain in that period, and the topography and archaeological evidence of its plateau appear to reflect the location and character of the biblical Mount Sinai.


Emmanuel Anati Biography

From the book "The Riddle of Mount Sinai - Archaeological Discoveries at Har Karkom"

I. Mount Sinai Rediscovered
II. The Mountain of Sanctuaries
III. The Birth of a Hypothesis
IV. Topography and Exegesis
V. The Testimony of Archaeology
VI. The Human Landscape: Camping Sites and Other Structures from the Bronze Age
VII. Enigmatic Discoveries
VIII. Rock Art and the Cult of Stones
IX. People, Climate, and History
X. Conclusions
Mount Sinai Images Gallery

From the Survey report of Har Karkom map

Har Karkom Survey
HK Periods analysis
BK Periods analysis
HK Rock Art analysis

The detailed corpus description of over 1200 archeological sites found at Har Karkom (HK) and Beer Karkom (BK) - By site number

HK Corpus 1-99
BK Corpus 100-399

Additional informations

Edizioni del Centro
CCSP General Informations

...Sanctuaries and altars located on the mountain and at its foot, as well as numerous remains of campsites, tell the hitherto unknown story of a sacred mountain in the heart of the desert of Exodus, which seems to reflect with surprising precision the events and conditions described to us, albeit in miticised form, in the Old Testament.

But the archaeological discoveries go far beyond this; in opening up new areas to archaeological investigation the book provokes lively and enlightening discussion. This web site, which features a rich iconography of over 200 illustrations, also helps to clarify a major question: to what extent may we consider the biblical narrative as a source of historical documentation.

This web site contains in full the book The Riddle of Mount Sinai - Archaeological Discoveries at Har Karkom by Emmanuel Anati, the mission Survey Report, and the Corpus describing over 1200 archeological sites. The author generously released it to the web in order to enable the general public to fully understand Har Karkom findings and facts.

First English Edition, 2001. Revised and updated text from the original title: HAR KARKOM, 20 ANNI DI RICERCHE ARCHEOLOGICHE, 1999. Translation and editing by the author with the collaboration of Valeria Damioli, Liz Nussbaum and Kathryn Pickles. The archaeological expedition to Har Karkom is carried on within the frame of the Italian Archaeological Project in Israel, with the support of the Direzione Generale Relazioni Culturali, Ministero Italiano Degli Affari Esteri. The photographic archive is supported by CIPHS, International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies.

Key words:Mount Sinai; Biblical Archaeology; Cult sites; Exodus; Geoglyphs; Hebrews; Israelites; Midianites, Negev desert; Rock Art; Sancturies; Sinai; Shrines; Worship. Periods: Palaeolithic; Neolithic; Chalcolithic; Bronze Age; Iron Age; Hellenistic; Nabatean. Layout and graphics: The graphic laboratory at Centro Camuno di Studi Preistorici. Printed in Italy February 2001 ISBN 88-86621-15-9

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Fig. 158a/b. Rock engraving called 'the eye that watches from the rock.' A large eye has seven lines arrayed from the bottom and seven from the top. (Site HK 36b; photo EA98: LVIII-5; drawing: HK Archive; WARA W06016, W06017).

Cover | Mount Sinai | Sanctuaries | Hypothesis | Exegesis | Testimony | Landscape | Discoveries | Rock Art | History | Conclusions | HK Survey | HK Periods | HK Rock Art | HK Corpus 1-99 | 100-199 | 200-299 | 300-399 | BK Corpus 100-399 | 400-499 | 500-599 | 600-699 | 700-799 | 800-899 | Glossary | Acknowledgements | Emmanuel Anati | Bibliography | Edizioni | CCSP | Images | Links

Copyright � 2001-2024 by Emmanuel Anati. All rights reserved. No part of this web site may be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages and reproduce not more than two illustrations in a review to be published in a magazine, newspaper or web review.
Reviews should include at least two links to, once in the article body and once at its end, referring readers to for more informations.

Edizioni del Centro, 25044 Capo di Ponte, Valcamonica (BS), Italy
TEL: 0039 0364/42091, FAX: 0039 0364/42572, [email protected]


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